The short answer is "no."
zip, et al., are all dual-function programs/file formats. They compress individual files, then archive the compressed results. That results in portions of the file that are not compressed, but that, in turn, allows programs to get to individual files.
.gz part) is different. It compresses a single byte stream only. The byte stream is provided by
.bz2) does the same thing, though with a different algorithm.
tar is the archiver program, and
gzip is the compression program. In order to get to the archive at all, the stream must first be decompressed. That can only happen by going through the entire file. Then, and only then, can
tar get to the individual pieces of the archive.
The reason you don't see the
gzip step here is that it has been built into
tar, not directly per se, but by
tar knowing to pipe its output stream to