I'm working with an embedded platform and need to have /dev/fb0 clear for my own use (the device accessible over serial console while the screen is used to display information, without X.).

I've already changed default.target from graphical to multi-user, but now it opens getty with login prompt on the framebuffer device and I just can't locate which service is that. I don't want to disable the serial console login by chance, and lsof doesn't show anything with /dev/fb0 open.

The distribution is Yocto Linux, if that's of any help.


lsof doesn't show anything with /dev/fb0 open.

It won't. There's a terminal emulator program built into the Linux kernel. It doesn't manifest as a running process with open file handles. It's layered on top of the framebuffer and the input event subsystem, which it uses internal kernel interfaces to access. It presents itself to application-mode systems as a series of kernel virtual terminal devices, /dev/tty1 and so forth.

One of those application-mode systems is of course the getty+login system, which can be configured to operate on these kernel virtual terminals, and (as you have found) is by default. You can easily rid yourself of the getty processes using documented systemd mechanisms.

In an old System 5 init system, each getty would be a record in /etc/inittab. In an BSD init system, each getty is a record in /etc/ttys. In a systemd system, things are a little indirect.

  • The "login" dæmon, logind, knows about things called "seats" in systemd slang. "Seat" zero is the one with the primary framebuffer and all of those kernel virtual terminals.
  • For that seat, logind attempts to start N systemd services, named autovt@tty1.service through to autovt@ttyN.service. The value of N is set in the NAutoVTs setting in /etc/systemd/logind.conf.
  • These systemd services are created from a service template unit, named autovt@.service. The template parameter is, as above, the device name of the kernel virtual terminal's device file, in /dev/.
  • autovt@.service is, in the default configuration, a symbolic link to getty@.service.
  • It is getty@.service that describes running a getty program, set to do its input/output via the kernel virtual terminal device file.

So to stop any of this, visit /etc/systemd/logind.conf and configure logind not to auto-start any autovt services (and not to reserve any virtual terminals, if you want to be thorough about it).

However, that is not the whole of it. The terminal emulator program is still active in the kernel, and everything from log messages directed to a kernel VT through to the regular flashing of the cursor will cause the terminal emulator to interfere with your use of the framebuffer. But that's a matter for coding the program that you have that uses the framebuffer to negotiate with the kernel terminal emulator program, which has already been answered here.

The serial console login happens via a quite different route, by the way. A generator creates an instance of the serial-getty@.service template unit a boot time, instantiating it once for each kernel console device that it finds, or is told about.

Further reading

  • ...or I can remove "virtual terminal" from Kernel altogether... – SF. Apr 3 '15 at 16:18
  • 1
    Indeed. I wrote a white paper on the subject back in 2006, and published a Linux/BSD user-space virtual terminal system in nosh last year. But that's really straying far beyond the scope of the question as written here, which talks of systemd services, and should be a separate question along the lines of unix.stackexchange.com/questions/20458. – JdeBP Apr 3 '15 at 21:13

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