Linux Mint 17.1 Cinnamon 64-bit or a recent Ubuntu/Debian distribution.
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install mtp-tools
Unplug the USB cable and reconnect your Android device.
The Android device should now be recognised as expected.
If you are still having problems, please try the following.
Check if you have other MTP software installed, run the following in a terminal window:
dpkg --get-selections | grep -v deinstall | grep -i mtp
This will list any packages relating with MTP. You should only need mtp-tools installed for normal, everyday use.
Ignore any lines starting with "libmtp" and uninstall any other packages listed except mtp-tools for example with the following command replacing 'mtp-server' with what you have listed from the previous instruction.
sudo apt-get remove mtp-server
Then reinstall the mtp-tools package with the following command:
sudo apt-get install --reinstall mtp-tools
You should now be able to access your Android device using MTP as expected from a Removable Storage device.