Note: I'm answering 1., since Ignacio already answered 2..
In the following
superadm ALL=(ALL) ALL
there are four fields:
- The first one specifies a user that will be granted privileges for some command(s).
- The second one is rarely used. It's a list of hostnames on which this sudo entry will be effective. On standard setups only one host is relevant (localhost) so this field is usually left as
- The fourth field is the list of commands
superadm will be able to run with elevated privileges.
ALL means all commands. Otherwise use a comma-separated list of commands.
- The third field (the one written
(…) that is optional) specifies which users (and groups) the
superadm user will be able to run the following commands as.
ALL means they can choose anything (unrestricted). It this field is omitted, it means the same as
alan ALL = (root, bin : operator, system) /bin/ls, /bin/kill
alan is allowed to run the two commands
bin), possibly with additional
system groups privileges.
alan may choose to run
ls as the
bin user and with
operator's group privileges like this:
sudo -u bin -g operator /bin/ls /whatever/directory
-u is omitted, it's the same as
-u root. If
-g is omitted, no additional group privileges are granted.