Some compilers (especially C or C++ ones) give you warnings about:

No new line at end of file

I thought this would be a C-programmers-only problem, but github displays a message in the commit view:

\ No newline at end of file

for a PHP file.

I understand the preprocessor thing explained in this thread, but what has this to do with PHP? Is it the same include() thing or is it related to the \r\n vs \n topic?

What is the point in having a new line at the end of a file?

up vote 143 down vote accepted

It's not about adding an extra newline at the end of a file, it's about not removing the newline that should be there.

A text file, under unix, consists of a series of lines, each of which ends with a newline character (\n). A file that is not empty and does not end with a newline is therefore not a text file.

Utilities that are supposed to operate on text files may not cope well with files that don't end with a newline; historical Unix utilities might ignore the text after the last newline, for example. GNU utilities have a policy of behaving decently with non-text files, and so do most other modern utilities, but you may still encounter odd behavior with files that are missing a final newline¹.

With GNU diff, if one of the files being compared ends with a newline but not the other, it is careful to note that fact. Since diff is line-oriented, it can't indicate this by storing a newline for one of the files but not for the others — the newlines are necessary to indicate where each line in the diff file starts and ends. So diff uses this special text \ No newline at end of file to differentiate a file that didn't end in a newline from a file that did.

By the way, in a C context, a source file similarly consists of a series of lines. More precisely, a translation unit is viewed in an implementation-defined as a series of lines, each of which must end with a newline character (n1256 §5.1.1.1). On unix systems, the mapping is straightforward. On DOS and Windows, each CR LF sequence (\r\n) is mapped to a newline (\n; this is what always happens when reading a file opened as text on these OSes). There are a few OSes out there which don't have a newline character, but instead have fixed- or variable-sized records; on these systems, the mapping from files to C source introduces a \n at the end of each record. While this isn't directly relevant to unix, it does mean that if you copy a C source file that's missing its final newline to a system with record-based text files, then copy it back, you'll either end up with the incomplete last line truncated in the initial conversion, or an extra newline tacked onto it during the reverse conversion.

¹ Example: the output of GNU sort always ends with a newline. So if the file foo is missing its final newline, you'll find that sort foo | wc -c reports one more character than cat foo | wc -c.

  • Concerning "... series of lines, each of which must end with a newline character (n1256 §5.1.1.1)" --> In re-viewing a the more recent C11dr N1570, did not find support for that other than maybe: "A source file that is not empty shall end in a new-line character, which shall not be immediately preceded by a backslash character before any such splicing takes place." §5.1.1.2 2, but that seems to be restricted to splicing specifications. – chux Aug 4 '16 at 16:22
  • @chux That sentence is present in n1256 too. The last line must end with a newline character. Lines that are not the last line must obviously also end with a newline character to indicate that that line ends and the next line begins. Thus every line must end with a newline character. – Gilles Aug 4 '16 at 16:40
  • Hmmm, To me, that line ""A source file ... splicing takes place." could be limited to how splicing considerations and not files in general. Yet I see how one could view otherwise. Perhaps I'll look for a post that focuses on that. – chux Aug 4 '16 at 17:01
  • >"So diff uses this special text \ No newline at end of file to differentiate a file that didn't end in a newline from a file that did." Git shows this text not only when it compares files. But even when new file added to git. So this argument is not valid, I suppose. – Viktor Kruglikov Jan 12 at 15:54
  • > "Utilities that are supposed to operate on text files may not cope well with files that don't end with a newline" I don't think that it's business of git to care about such low level problems like missing \n because of POSIX requirements. I think that if git shows this message, reason should be in source control problems. – Viktor Kruglikov Jan 12 at 15:58

Not necessarily the reason, but a practical consequence of files not ending with a new line:

Consider what would happen if you wanted to process several files using cat. For instance, if you wanted to find the word foo at the start of the line across 3 files:

cat file1 file2 file3 | grep -e '^foo'

If the first line in file3 starts with foo, but file2 does not have a final \n after its last line, this occurrence would not be found by grep, because the last line in file2 and the first line in file3 would be seen by grep as a single line.

So, for consistence and in order to avoid surprises I try to keep my files always ending with a new line.

  • But is it business of git to care about files concatenation? – Viktor Kruglikov Jan 15 at 9:33

There are two aspects:

  1. There are/were some C compilers that cannot parse the last line if it does not end with a newline. The C standard specifies that a C file should end with a newline (C11, 5.1.1.2, 2.) and that a last line without a newline yields undefined behavior (C11, J.2, 2nd item). Perhaps for historic reasons, because some vendor of such a compiler was part of the committee when the first standard was written. Thus the warning by GCC.

  2. diff programs (like used by git diff, github etc.) show line by line differences between files. They usually print a message when only one file ends with a newline because else you would not see this difference. For example if the only difference between two files is the presence of the last newline character, without the hint it would look like the both files were the same, when diff and cmp return an exit-code unequal success and the checksums of the files (e.g. via md5sum) don't match.

The \ No newline at end of file you get from github appears at the end of a patch (in diff format, see the note at the end of the "Unified Format" section).

Compilers don't care whether there is a newline or not at the end of a file, but git (and the diff/patch utilities) have to take those in account. There are many reasons for that. For example, forgetting to add or to remove a newline at the end of a file would change its hashsum (md5sum/sha1sum). Also, files are not always programs, and a final \n might make some difference.

Note: About the warning from C compilers, I guess they insist for a final newline for backward compatibility purposes. Very old compilers might not accept the last line if doesn't end with \n (or other system-dependent end-of-line char sequence).

  • 6
    "I guess they insist for a final newline for backward compatibility purposes" - Nope, they insist on it because the C standard mandates it. – MestreLion Aug 28 '13 at 9:25
  • 1
    @MestreLion C requires a final newline for C source code (C11 §5.1.1.2 2). Note that for text file I/O, C has "Whether the last line requires a terminating new-line character is implementation-defined." §7.21.2 2 – chux Sep 4 at 13:39

There is also the point of keeping diff history. If a file ends without a newline character, then adding anything to the end of the file will be viewed by diff utilities as changing that last line (because \n is being added to it).

This could cause unwanted results with commands such as git blame and hg annotate.

POSIX, this is a set of standards specified by IEEE to maintain compatibility between operating systems.

One of which is the definition of a "line" being a sequence of zero or more non- characters plus a terminating newline character.

So for that last line to be recognised as an actual "line" it should have a terminating new line character.

This is important if you depend on OS tools to say line count or split / help parse your file. Given PHP is a script language, its entirely possible especially in its early days or even now (I have no idea / postulating) it had OS dependencies like that.

In reality, most operating systems are not fully POSIX compliant and humans are not that machine like or even caring about terminating new lines. So for most things its a smorgasbord of everything either caring about it, warning or just going that last bit of text is really a line so just include it.

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