21

How to match the hidden files inside the given directories

for example

If I give the below command it's not giving the result of the hidden files,

 du -b maybehere*/*

how to achieve this simple using a single command instead of using

du -b maybehere*/.* maybehere*/*

as I need to type maybehere twice.

  • Try for just hidden maybehere*/.* and append to above for all – Costas Feb 22 '15 at 12:49
  • 1
    Your edit makes a new question with additional restrictions, that makes the Q into a moving target, possible invalidating the answer(s) already given. That is bad manners, just ask a new question if you have one. – Anthon Feb 22 '15 at 13:09
22

Take advantage of the brace expansion:

du -b maybehere*/{*,.[^.],.??*}

or alternatively

du -b maybehere*/{,.[^.],..?}*

The logic behind this is probably not obvious, so here is explanation:

  • * matches all non-hidden files
  • .[^.] matches files which names started with single dot followed by not a dot; that are only 2 character filenames in the first form.
  • .??* matches hidden files which are at least 3 character long
  • ..?* like above, but second character must be a dot

The whole point is to exclude hard links to current and parent directory (. and ..), but include all normal files in such a way that each of them will be counted only once!

For example the simplest would be to just write

du -b maybehere*/{.,}*

It means that that the list contains a dot . and "nothing" (nothing is between , and closing }), thus all hidden files (which start from a dot) and all non-hidden files (which start from "nothing") would match. The problem is that this would also match . and .., and this is most probably not what you want, so we have to exclude it somehow.


Final word about brace expansion.

Brace expansion is a mechanism by which you can include more files/strings/whatever to the commandline by writing fewer characters. The syntax is {word1,word2,...}, i.e. it is a list of comma separated strings which starts from { and end with }. bash manual gives a very basic and at the same time very common example of usage:

$ echo a{b,c,d}e
abe ace ade
  • what is the use of the { } I have no idea :( can you give me a direction to get more info about it – vidhan Feb 22 '15 at 13:12
  • @vidhan see the edit, and look look at man bash for "Brace Expansion" chapter. – jimmij Feb 22 '15 at 13:18
  • would you mind giving me more explanation for the above ans little bit more clearly explaining how every thing works as I am new with these things @jimmij – vidhan Feb 22 '15 at 13:27
  • 6
    .??* fails to match .a, .b... .[^.]* fails to match ..foo. – Stéphane Chazelas Feb 22 '15 at 13:53
  • 4
    .foo matches both .[^.]* and .??*. You want {.[!.],..?,}*. – Stéphane Chazelas Feb 22 '15 at 14:25
14

Since you're already using GNU specific syntax (-b):

du -abd1 maybehere*/

That way, it's du that lists the files in the maybehere* directories (and it doesn't exclude dot files). -d1 limits the reporting of disk usage to one level down (including non-directories with -a).

Otherwise, for globs to include hidden files (except . and ..), each shell has its own syntax:

  • zsh:

    du -b maybehere*/*(D)
    
  • ksh93:

    (FIGNORE='@(.|..)'; du -b maybehere*/*)
    
  • bash:

    (shopt -s dotglob; du -b maybehere*/*)
    
  • tcsh:

    (set globdot; du -b maybehere*/*)
    
  • yash:

    (set -o dot-glob; du -b maybehere*/*)
    

    though beware it includes . and .. on systems that include them in the result of readdir() which makes it hardly usable.

8

Another option is available here :

du -sm .[!.]* *
  • Why would you want to skip filenames starting with ..? – Kusalananda Aug 10 '18 at 6:53
  • 2
    Presumably, because they don't want to list everything in ../ and below. – Shadur Aug 10 '18 at 7:35
  • This does not count files like e.g. ..myfile; add ..?* for that. But +1 for using the proper glob syntax for negative matches. – Pedro Gimeno Oct 26 at 15:15
0

If you want to just list hidden directories or operate on hidden directories then as Costas said you can use

du -b maybehere*/.*

This will allow you to operate on hidden files and directories. If you want only hidden directories then you can specify that with

du -b maybehere*/.*/

  • can you please see the question once again @SailorCire I have edited it a bit – vidhan Feb 22 '15 at 13:03
  • @vidhan so you only want to work on hidden inside one directory? Is that correct? – SailorCire Feb 22 '15 at 13:04
  • no I want to match both hidden and non-hidden files inside the one directory instead of using both du maybehere*/.* and maybehere*/* one of hidden and another for non hidden – vidhan Feb 22 '15 at 13:06
  • @vidhan du -b picks up both hidden and non hidden. – SailorCire Feb 22 '15 at 13:12
  • no :( unfortunately @SailorCire – vidhan Feb 22 '15 at 13:20
0

While not shell directly, you can use find with limited depth like this

find maybehere -maxdepth 1 -exec du -sh {} \;

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