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Is there a tool that handles generic migration of config? For example if I have httpd, postfix, MySQL and users and groups data, is there a tool that can extract the config data for each service so that I can apply it on another system.

Generally speaking is there a tool (or strategy) that handles this for all services?

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One the popular accepted solutions to this problem is using a configuration management system. Some examples are puppet, chef, and saltstack.

These systems allow you to define exactly what a server (or in some cases an application stack) looks like. Using these tools you define a server's state, including its configuration.

Here is an example of a very basic apache configuration using Puppet with the puppetlabs/apache module:

class { 'apache': }
apache::vhost { 'first.example.com':
  port    => '80',
  docroot => '/var/www/first',
}

This simple bit of puppet code ensures the following:

  • Apache is installed on the server
  • The webserver is running and listening on port 80
  • Contains a vhost with the docroot /var/www/first

You can then apply this manifest to many servers in a cluster. There are many reasons for the movement towards this type of configuration instead manually copying configuration files. It treats your server configuration and infrastructure in a very similar manner to how you treat code.

  • The configs for these systems are often stored in version control. This allows you to easily view changes, rollback, etc
  • Your server states can be unit tested and acceptance tested
  • Shared modules work like code libraries - you do not need to reinvent the wheel
  • Your servers are provisioned in a way which is repeatable (and more reliable)

Many consider use of these systems a big part of the devops movement.

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