5

When I'm checking for some process, I usually write

ps aux | grep myprocess

And sometimes I get the output of

eimantas 11998  0.0  0.0   8816   740 pts/0    S+   07:45   0:00 grep myprocess

if the process is not running.

Now I really wonder why grep is in the list of processes if it filters out the output of the ps command after ps has run?

12

This behavior is totally normal, it's due to how bash manages pipe usage.

pipe is implemented by bash using the pipe syscall. After that call, bash forks and replaces the standard input (file descriptor 0) with the input from the right process (grep). The main bash process creates another fork and passes the output descriptor of the fifo in place of the standard input (file description 1) and launches the left command.

The ps utility is launched after the grep command, so you can see it on the output.

If you are not convinced by it, you can use set -x to enable command tracing. For instance:

+ ps aux
+ grep --color=auto grep
+ grep --color=auto systemd
alexises  1094  0.0  0.8   6212  2196 pts/0    S+   09:30   0:00 grep --color=auto systemd

For more explanation you can check this part of basic c shell: http://www.cs.loyola.edu/~jglenn/702/S2005/Examples/dup2.html

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  • Yes, you're true, I made a misstake, – alexises Dec 31 '14 at 10:34
8

When I'm only interested in presence of a process, I use pgrep which doesn't show this behaviour, e.g.:

$ pgrep myprocess
1900

In other cases (when I'm interested in more info), I usually add a | grep -v grep to discard grep lines, e.g.:

$ ps -ef | grep myprocess| grep -v grep
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  • If you want to maintain color highlighting of the matched string use ps | grep --color=always myprocess | grep -v grep – iyrin Dec 31 '14 at 10:08
  • 1
    @RyanLoremIpsum Or just reorder the two grep commands like ps -ef | grep -v grep | grep myprocess – kasperd Dec 31 '14 at 10:59
  • So inconsistent. Why does it work that way and not the other? v_v – iyrin Dec 31 '14 at 11:31
  • Because the colors are being stripped in the pipeline – Marco Ceppi Dec 31 '14 at 12:25
  • 2
    A time-honored trick to help this is ps -ef|grep [m]yprocess – Alan Shutko Dec 31 '14 at 21:13
6

The pipe does not behave like ;. It starts both the processes together. Which is why the grep command showed up too. So when you gave ps aux | grep myprocess , the ps aux included the grep myprocess, so the grep included that in its output.

To check this, I gave two dd commands on my test server like this:

[sreeraj@server ~]$ dd if=/dev/urandom of=/home/sreeraj/myfile1 bs=1M count=1024 | dd  if=/dev/urandom of=/home/sreeraj/myfile2 bs=1M count=1024

And when I checked for the dd process, it shows that it both has started at the same time(look at the coloumn that says 2:55 minutes has elapsed) :

[sreeraj@server ~]$ ps aux | grep 'dd if'
sreeraj  14891  100  0.2   5376  1416 pts/0    R+   11:56   2:55 dd if=/dev/urandom of=/home/sreeraj/myfile1 bs=1M count=1024
sreeraj  14892  100  0.2   5376  1412 pts/0    R+   11:56   2:55 dd if=/dev/urandom of=/home/sreeraj/myfile2 bs=1M count=1024
sreeraj  14936  0.0  0.1   9032   672 pts/1    S+   11:59   0:00 grep --color=auto dd if
[sreeraj@server ~]$

Now, if you want to exclude the grep from getting outputted, use regex. It will exclude the grep from the result:

ps aux | grep "[m]yprocess"

For example, if you are looking for httpd process, use:

ps aux | grep "[h]ttpd"

But I suggest you use pgrep -a, which will be more reliable.

[sreeraj@server ~]$ pgrep -a httpd
8507 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
8509 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
8510 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
8511 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
8513 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
8529 /usr/sbin/httpd -DFOREGROUND
[sreeraj@server ~]$
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  • 2
    [my]process. would match mprocessX and yprocessY (since [my] is a character class which matches on of the letters m or y, and . matches anything). – Lekensteyn Dec 31 '14 at 9:39
  • pgrep -a does not seem to be available to me in pgrep -V pgrep from procps-ng 3.3.3. – iyrin Jan 1 '15 at 4:48
  • @RyanLoremIpsum - Did you check the man page. – Citylight Jan 1 '15 at 6:22
3

You're correct, that's not how it works. The shell doesn't wait for the first process in a pipeline to exit before starting the next. It starts them all. As such, the ps may see the grep already running.

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  • 1
    Do you mean "You're incorrect"? The rest continues as if that's what you mean. – Jonathan Leffler Dec 31 '14 at 10:33
2

Consider this thought experiment: if ps ran to completion before invoking grep as you think it should, that would mean that the shell would need to:

  1. Invoke ps.
  2. Buffer all of its output (because it has nowhere else to go yet).
  3. Invoke grep.
  4. Feed the saved output to grep's stdin.

This is wasteful; it's a more efficient use of memory to invoke grep first, let it wait for input, then feed ps's stdout directly to grep's stdin.

Or, taken to the extreme, consider the case of piping the output of a program that generates an infinite amount of output, e.g.:

$ yes | less

If the shell ran yes before less, you would be left waiting forever (or until you completely exhaust your computer's memory).

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1

Just confirming as BowlOfRed and alexises stated. Here is a visual representation piping ps and grep back to ps again to show how the piped processes run. Note that the final ps x --forest is ignoring the input, but it keeps the previously piped processes alive so they will be displayed.

ps -ef | grep myprocess | ps x --forest

Excerpt of output:

25056 pts/3    Ss     0:05  \_ bash
12243 pts/3    R+     0:00  |   \_ ps -ef
12244 pts/3    S+     0:00  |   \_ grep --color=auto myprocess
12245 pts/3    R+     0:00  |   \_ ps x --forest

Notice bash is in the interruptible sleep state S (waiting for an event to complete). The s indicates it is the session leader, as you will see below.

With the -ef option you can also see that the child processes are running under the same parent ID which is the process ID of bash, 25056.

ps x | grep myprocess | ps -ef --forest

Excerpt of output:

UID         PID   PPID   C STIME TTY          TIME  CMD
iamuser     25056 16737  0 Dec23 pts/3    00:00:05  \_ bash
iamuser     12161 25056  0 05:02 pts/3    00:00:00  |   \_ ps x
iamuser     12162 25056  0 05:02 pts/3    00:00:00  |   \_ grep myprocess
iamuser     12163 25056  0 05:02 pts/3    00:00:00  |   \_ ps -ef --forest
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