I used to write my scripts like this:

while [ $? -ne 0 ] ; do
    sleep 1

It always irked me that I have to write some_command twice. Can I put it inside the loop test section somehow?

up vote 20 down vote accepted

You could use some_command as your test condition.

while ! some_command; do sleep 1; done

The condition will remain true as long as some_command exits with an error.

Or a more verbose way if you want to do additional checks:

while ! some_command
    # add more if desired
    sleep 1
  • This looks better than mine, even though it is a one-liner ;-) – Anthon Dec 22 '14 at 15:46
  • The OP might want to split it into several lines should he need to execute several commands upon failure, though :) – John WH Smith Dec 22 '14 at 15:50
  • No reason why you can't line-break it at the semi-colons to make it multi-line. – Mark Stewart Dec 22 '14 at 16:03
  • 1
    ... or write while ! some_command; do several; commands; sleep 1; done – ignis Dec 23 '14 at 18:04

This is what the until loop is for:

until some_command
do    sleep 1

It is the logical negation of a while loop.

The spec says:

The until Loop

  • The until loop shall continuously execute one compound-list as long as another compound-list has a non-zero exit status.

  • The format of the until loop is as follows:

    until compound-list-1
    do    compound-list-2
  • The compound-list-1 shall be executed, and if it has a zero exit status, the until command completes. Otherwise, the compound-list-2 shall be executed, and the process repeats.

You can just do:

while [ $? -ne 0 ] ; do
   sleep 1

this has the disadvantage though that it always sleeps one second first

If you want to be able to exit on any of a number of commands to exit with 0 you can do :

while true; do
  if [ some_command ] ; then break ; fi
  if [ some_other_command ] ; then break ; fi
  sleep 1

which of course also works for just some_command

  • 5
    The second example shouldn't include [ and ] around the commands. – nyuszika7h Dec 22 '14 at 23:14

Neither while ! ... nor until ... works on the systems that froze their shell environment prior to POSIX.1-2001. This, however, does.

while :; do
    if some command; then
    sleep 1

If you don't need total portability, why are you writing a shell script? Perl is more likely to be available than Bash.

sleep 1 while 0 != system qw(some command);

(As above, the sleep is only executed if the command fails.)

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