Is there a video player for Linux that shows the milliseconds of time elapsed?
There's an extension for VLC, but according to comments at the link it doesn't work with newer versions.
There is a VLC extension known as the time extension, it only works on VLC v2.0.x. You can check the tutorial here http://www.latestsolution.com/2016/06/Show-VLC-Timing-In-Millisecond.html
In status bar:
Options -> Statusbar
OSD (on screen display):
View -> OSD
For OSD it can need to install mpv. Activate mpv in SMPlayer here:
Options - Preferences - General - Multimedia engine - mpv
Run mplayer in a terminal using
mplayer -osd-fractions 1 yourfile