netstat command is useful to,

Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships.

Now, I was reading about the Linux performance which is depicted in a nice pictorial view from here.

How is netstat command used in various levels of networking as depicted in the performance diagram in the referenced question?


Let us look into the performance diagram to understand the various layers in which netstat command is useful for debugging.

enter image description here


netstat -in command is used in this layer where -i flag is used to display a table of all network interfaces, or the specified iface.


netstat -an command is used in this layer where -a flag is used to show both listening and non-listening (for TCP this means established connections) sockets.


netstat -at is used to display either TCP or UDP connections. TCP and UDP protocols are used in the transport layer.


netstat -p is used to show which processes are using which sockets.

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