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I would like to use built-in speakers of my laptop and an external microphone in the same time (for skype).

But my sound card has only one connector which does both output and input. So when I plug in my microphone, pulseaudio deactivate automatically the speakers (which are seen as "unavailable" in pavucontrol).

How to use both built-in speakers and external microphone on a single jack?

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I know this is old, but it is still a pain to configure. Luckily since then PulseAudio evolved (yes, you have to use PulseAudio). To do so:

apt install pulseaudio

then you can:

pacmd list-sources | grep -e device.string -e 'name:'

and you will obtain something like this:

name: <alsa_output.platform-soc_audio.analog-mono.monitor>
    device.string = "0"
name: <alsa_input.usb-C-Media_Electronics_Inc._USB_PnP_Sound_Device-00.analog-mono>
    device.string = "hw:1"

to set your input (in my case en external usb microphone) you can type:

pacmd set-default-source alsa_input.usb-C-Media_Electronics_Inc._USB_PnP_Sound_Device-00.analog-mono

to make the change permanent, add this line at the end of your /etc/pulse/default.pa:

set-default-source alsa_input.usb-C-Media_Electronics_Inc._USB_PnP_Sound_Device-00.analog-mono

The same apply for your output:

pacmd list-sinks | grep -e 'name:' -e 'index'

in my case I am using the internal audio device (I'm on a RPi3):

* index: 2
name: <alsa_output.platform-soc_audio.analog-mono>

and, like before:

pacmd set-default-sink alsa_output.platform-soc_audio.analog-mono

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