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I'm trying to create a symbolic link which would be system-wide usable. The $PATH output is the follow: /usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games So I don't understand why if I create a sl for example in /bin this symlink only works from inside the /bin directory and not from others directories.

For example:

# cd /bin 
# ln -s /media/bc7bc3eb-4ba9-4c12-8066-5f2e9ea747ec/SharedHOME/ ./shome
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    The symbolic Link does not understand that you want it to search $PATH, as a Symbolic Link is relative to it's parent only. – eyoung100 Nov 24 '14 at 16:07
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The $PATH environment variable is only used when you run an executable.

In your case, you've symlinked a directory. As a directory isn't an executable, then your shell will not search $PATH for it.

If you symlink to an executable, you'll find that it works as expected.

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