I have the misfortune of dealing with filenames that contain spaces. I want to concatenate files of which filenames contain spaces. I also want to sort the filenames numerically. Obviously the following fails:

cat $(ls *.sql | sort -n)

since foo bar.sql is passed as two arguments to cat. What is the usual approach here?

  • 1
    The usual approach is to avoid parsing the output of ls. Use find instead. find can use a NUL byte as the delimiter, and both sort and xargs can accept that delimiter, so that approach can even handle filenames that contain \n. – PM 2Ring Nov 17 '14 at 10:47
  • Note that that code would also fail (not do what you want) if filenames contained wildcard characters (*, ?, [), tab or newline, started with - or some of the *.sql files were of type directory (in which case ls lists their content). – Stéphane Chazelas Nov 17 '14 at 11:23

No need for ls here. It's the shell that lists the directory content by expanding the *.sql glob.

On a GNU or FreeBSD system:

printf '%s\0' *.sql | sort -nz | xargs -r0 cat --

(using \0 instead of \n together with -z/-0 makes sure it also works with file names containing newline characters).

Note that the numeric sorting with -n assumes the number is at the start of the filename.

Or if you have zsh:

cat ./*.sql(.n)

(The n glob qualifier is to enable numeric sorting (also works when the number is not at the start provided all file names have the same prefix (like file12.sql, file2.sql). I added . as well to only include regular files. Add D if you also want hidden files like .foo.sql).


You can do cat $(ls -1) if you override IFS. IFS is the shell variable that tells BASH which characters to use as a deliminator. The default value for IFS is space, tab, newline. If you change IFS to just newline then you can do cat $(ls -1).

There is nothing wrong with the other answers but this might be a more direct answer to how to deal with spaces in general and this answer introduces the IFS variable which most are not familiar with.

dir=$(mktemp -d)
for x in $(seq 10); do
    echo $x > "$dir/$(date) $x.txt"

pushd $dir
ls -1 $dir

# Set IFS to newline only inorder to deal with the spaces in the file names

cat $(ls -1 $dir)



[sri@localhost test]$ ./test
/tmp/tmp.IuXCBzbTLj ~/test
Mon Nov 17 06:38:52 EST 2014 10.txt
Mon Nov 17 06:38:52 EST 2014 1.txt
Mon Nov 17 06:38:52 EST 2014 2.txt
Mon Nov 17 06:38:52 EST 2014 3.txt
Mon Nov 17 06:38:52 EST 2014 4.txt
Mon Nov 17 06:38:52 EST 2014 5.txt
Mon Nov 17 06:38:52 EST 2014 6.txt
Mon Nov 17 06:38:52 EST 2014 7.txt
Mon Nov 17 06:38:52 EST 2014 8.txt
Mon Nov 17 06:38:52 EST 2014 9.txt

Here is a link to some documentation on IFS. http://bash.cyberciti.biz/guide/$IFS. I think that I learned about it a long time ago by reading O'Rielly's BASH book.

  • 1
    Except with zsh, you also need to disable globbing with set -f. Leaving a variable or command substitution unquoted is the split+glob operator. You don't want the glob part here. You do want globbing for expanding *.sql though. So that should be: IFS=$'\n'; set -f; cat -- $(set +f; ls -d -- *.sql). But, as I said, you don't need ls here, and you'd still have a problem with newline characters in file names. – Stéphane Chazelas Nov 17 '14 at 12:51
  • I can't speak to zsh. I just wanted to introduce readers to the IFS variable. Certainly there are many better methods to solve this problem but I wanted to show the readers that it could be accomplished with a call to ls if that's what they feel comfortable with. – shrewmouse Nov 17 '14 at 13:10
  • There's a much simpler method for people who want to stick to familiar tools. Yes, sure, IFS exists, but it isn't a particularly useful way to solve this particular problem. And if you do use it, use it as Stéphane suggested, in a way that at least solves the problem for all non-newline characters. – Gilles Nov 18 '14 at 7:49

Use xargs (assuming the GNU implementation) with a custom delimiter (assuming filenames don't contain newlines):

ls -1d -- *.sql | sort -n | xargs -d "\n" cat --

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