I was wondering how prelinking works. If I prelink my whole system and than delete glibc, will the system 'get up' after restart?
Well of course it won't, because you won't have a C library anymore.
All prelink does is to try and calculate an optimal load address for each library so that no program will have overlapping libraries, then update the libraries so that they default to loading at that address.
Then when a program is run the libraries it uses are unlikely to need to be relocated as they can probably be loaded at their default address.