I want to open emacs + an emacs file directly in the terminal, the file in question, how should I go about it?
Since you are using
putty I assume you want a non-X version of Emacs:
emacs -nw test.txt
test.txt in a non-window version of Emacs.
If you need to open test.txt on a particular line and column use:
emacs -nw +5:8 test.txt
This will set your cursor to column 8 on line 5 (or at the end of that line if it is not long enough).