Not really. You can't run an executable compiled for one processor type on another processor.
You could use Qemu to emulate an x86 processor, and install an x86 system that you run in Qemu, and set up all the plumbing. This would be a lot of work to set up, and it would be slow and memory-hungry. I mention it for completeness, not as a practical solution.
Qemu can also be used to emulate another processor to run a binary transparently. There's a tutorial for Debian. I've never done this, I don't know how easy it is to set up. Note that most literature on this topic will be to run arm or mips or ppc on x86, you're doing the opposite (x86 on arm).
The most practical solution is to compile that filter for your system. You can either do the compilation on your Pi or use a cross-compiler on a PC. There are several ABIs for ARM, so make sure to use a cross-compiler for Raspbian.
If you don't have the source of that filter, ask the printer manufacturer for a suitable binary, or look for an alternative, open-source driver. As a last resort, use a PC to print.