For a command, if using - as an argument in place of a file name will mean STDIN or STDOUT.

  1. But in this example, it creates a file with the name -:

    echo hello > -

    How can I make - in this example mean STDOUT?

  2. Conversely, how can I make - mean a file named - in examples such as:

    cat -
  • 4
    Since I apparently have to have 50 reputation to comment directly... On the /dev/stdin /dev/stdout comment, AIX, which is a legitimate UNIX derivative does not have these pseudodevices. And, as a further comment, LINUX is not a UNIX derivative in any case. It is a POSIX-compliant workalike, and the most popular of the UNIX-ish OS's at this point, but make no mistake, this is no UNIX. But, the gist of the replies here are correct. The "-" notation is not interpreted as special by the shell, and is thus passed directly to each individual application as an ARG. If the application does not recogni
    – user95873
    Commented Dec 23, 2014 at 20:04
  • There are also 2>&- construction, which means "close descriptor 2". Commented Dec 2, 2016 at 5:58
  • @user95873, what I suppose you wanted to say is: while Linux is Unix-like, not every Unix-like (or true UNIX) is Linux. The matter whether Linux is or isn't true UNIX (i.e. complies the Single UNIX Specification) doesn't have relation to /dev/std{in,out,err} issue. As /dev/std{in,out,err} is added feature, not missing.
    – sasha
    Commented Dec 9, 2016 at 12:32

6 Answers 6


Using - as a filename to mean stdin/stdout is a convention that a lot of programs use. It is not a special property of the filename. The kernel does not recognise - as special so any system calls referring to - as a filename will use - literally as the filename.

With bash redirection, - is not recognised as a special filename¹, so bash will use that as the literal filename.

When cat sees the string - as a filename, it treats it as a synonym for stdin. To get around this, you need to alter the string that cat sees in such a way that it still refers to a file called -. The usual way of doing this is to prefix the filename with a path - ./-, or /home/Tim/-. This technique is also used to get around similar issues where command line options clash with filenames, so a file referred to as ./-e does not appear as the -e command line option to a program, for example.

¹ Except for the >& filename operator that bash eventually copied from csh to redirect both stdout and stderr, where >&- is still about closing file descriptors like in the Bourne shell, even when - is quoted or the result of an expansion which means that >& operator can't be used for arbitrary file names. Use the standard/Bourne > "$file" 2>&1 syntax or the bash-specific &> "$file" instead.

  • 52
    It's worth adding that /dev/stdin and /dev/stdout are universally available and can be used in place of the - convention.
    – jmtd
    Commented Jul 22, 2011 at 9:00
  • 14
    @jmtd: /dev/std{in,out} are not universally available. Not all unixes have it.
    – camh
    Commented Jul 22, 2011 at 10:37
  • 2
    Interesting, I assumed they were part of POSIX (but can't confirm). They're present at least on Linux, the BSDs and Solaris. Can you give an example of a modern UNIX that lacks them?
    – jmtd
    Commented Aug 2, 2011 at 8:51
  • 1
    @camh Not sure if you got the notification, and this is a very, very old topic; I'm not sure if you can, but I'm very curious if you know the answer to jmtd's question? :)
    – Swivel
    Commented Nov 23, 2016 at 6:29
  • 3
    @jmtd I seem to have found a tentative answer to the question: unix.stackexchange.com/a/278368/31669
    – Swivel
    Commented Nov 23, 2016 at 6:35
  1. Instead of echo hello > -, you can use echo hello > /dev/stdout.

    While '-' is a convention that has to be implemented by each program wanting to support it, /dev/stdin, /dev/stdout and /dev/stderr are, when supported by the OS (at least Solaris, Linux and BSDs do), independent of the application and then will work as you intend.


As camh mentioned, - is just a naming convention used by some programs. If you want to refer to these streams with a file descriptor the shell will recognize, jiliagre was correct in having you use the name /dev/stdin or /dev/stdout instead. Those file names should work any place a normal file name would work.

  1. That being said, your first example is kind of silly. Any output that would be caught by the redirect operator to write to a file is already ON standard-output, so redirecting it and writing it back to where it came from is useless. The behavior you use there is the pipe, not a redirect:

    echo hello |
  2. In your second example you simply need to give can some indication that you want a litteral file of that name, not the internal alias it has. You can do this easiest by specifying a path to the file like this:

    cat ./-

As for 1, the program has to support it. You can't just arbitrarily use it. As for 2, redirect input from (e.g., cat < -).


The '-' approach has a lot of problems. First of all it requires an interpretation of the '-' character and many programs don't perform such interpretation. And furthermore, there are some programs that interpret an hyphen as a delimiter marking the end of command line options. The programs are written to work with filename arguments, the '-' approach is an hack, nice but weak.

The best way is:

$ echo hello > /dev/fd/1

/dev/stdout is a symbolik link of /dev/fd/1

  • The redirection is interpreted by the shell, not the program being invoked.
    – sherrellbc
    Commented Jan 3, 2017 at 13:46
  • If /dev/stdout exists at all, it may be a symbolic link to /dev/fd/1 as you say, but it may also be a symbolic link to /proc/self/fd/1 or it may be a character special device file, depending on what Unix you're on. See also unix.stackexchange.com/questions/36403/…
    – Kusalananda
    Commented Apr 26 at 6:49

Special characters have mostly two meanings:

ASCII numeric chart.

Scripting or symbolic.

It's possible that a single character represents a string, or act as a string. as my understanding.

in C language fopen() function takes two arguments first file stream and the second mode in which file will be open. the mode is a string. even if it's single character.

cat > "-" works.

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .