I installed CodeBlocks on Kali Linux but I got 10.05 version and I want to update it to 13.12, preferably via terminal.
Also I would like to know how to update any application this way.
You could try to download the deb package and open it up using the file explorer. Then it is possible it will install.
You can download the .deb on the official Debian site at https://www.debian.org/distrib/packages then use
dpkg -i package.deb