Suppose I click on a file in Nautilus. How can I copy the full address to the clipboard, and then easily paste it into a shell command that I'm typing in a terminal?
Press Ctrl+C to copy. When you paste into a terminal, what you'll get is the file name (with its full path).
You get the raw file name, which won't be directly usable in a shell command if it contains spaces or other special characters. To use the file name in a command, don't use a paste command from the terminal, let the shell do the pasting. Install the program
xsel (packaged in most distributions) and call it on your command line, inside a command substitution. You need double quotes around the command substitution to protect special characters such as spaces.
$ ls -l "`xsel -b`"
Click on it, press Ctrl+C and just paste it. If you use
xclip -selection c w for pasting instead of Ctrl+Shift+V you won't get any
file:// prefix or URL encoding.
I recommend wrapping that into something more convenient to use and using it for manipulating the clipboard when you're in the terminal. Here's an article that discusses this method using the commandline tool
vipe, it's titled:
VIPE WITHOUT MOREUTILS.