These are called shell operators and yes, there are more of them. I will give a brief overview of the most common among the two major classes, control operators and redirection operators, and how they work with respect to the bash shell.
A. Control operators
In the shell command language, a token that performs a control function.
It is one of the following symbols:
& && ( ) ; ;; <newline> | ||
|& in bash.
! is not a control operator but a Reserved Word. It becomes a logical NOT [negation operator] inside Arithmetic Expressions and inside test constructs (while still requiring an space delimiter).
A.1 List terminators
command1 is run, in the foreground, and once it has finished,
command2 will be run.
A newline that isn't in a string literal or after certain keywords is not equivalent to the semicolon operator. A list of
; delimited simple commands is still a list - as in the shell's parser must still continue to read in the simple commands that follow a
; delimited simple command before executing, whereas a newline can delimit an entire command list - or list of lists. The difference is subtle, but complicated: given the shell has no previous imperative for reading in data following a newline, the newline marks a point where the shell can begin to evaluate the simple commands it has already read in, whereas a
; semi-colon does not.
command1 is launched in the background and
command2 starts running in the foreground immediately, without waiting for
command1 to exit.
A newline after
command1 is optional.
A.2 Logical operators
command2 will run after
command1 has finished and only if
command1 was successful (if its exit code was 0). Both commands are run in the foreground.
This command can also be written
if command1; then command2; fi if the return status is ignored.
command2 will only run if
command1 failed (if it returned an exit status other than 0). Both commands are run in the foreground.
This command can also be written
or in a shorter way
if ! command1; then command2; fi.
|| are left-associative; see Precedence of the shell logical operators &&, || for more information.
!: This is a reserved word which acts as the “not” operator (but must have a delimiter), used to negate the return status of a command — return 0 if the command returns a nonzero status, return 1 if it returns the status 0. Also a logical NOT for the
[ ! a = a ]
And a true NOT operator inside Arithmetic Expressions:
$ echo $((!0)) $((!23))
A.3 Pipe operator
| : The pipe operator, it passes the output of one command as input to another. A command built from the pipe operator is called a pipeline.
command1 | command2
Any output printed by
command1 is passed as input to
|& : This is a shorthand for
2>&1 | in bash and zsh. It passes both standard output and standard error of one command as input to another.
command1 |& command2
A.4 Other list punctuation
;; is used solely to mark the end of a case statement. Ksh, bash and zsh also support
;& to fall through to the next case and
;;& (not in ATT ksh) to go on and test subsequent cases.
) are used to group commands and launch them in a subshell.
} also group commands, but do not launch them in a subshell. See this answer for a discussion of the various types of parentheses, brackets and braces in shell syntax.
B. Redirection Operators
POSIX definition of Redirection Operator
In the shell command language, a token that performs a redirection function. It is one of the following symbols:
< > >| << >> <& >& <<- <>
These allow you to control the input and output of your commands. They can appear anywhere within a simple command or may follow a command. Redirections are processed in the order they appear, from left to right.
The above will execute
command on the contents of
If the file doesn't exist, it will be created.
That operator is rarely used because commands generally only read from their stdin, though it can come handy in a number of specific situations.
The above will save the output of
out.txt. If the file exists, its contents will be overwritten and if it does not exist it will be created.
This operator is also often used to choose whether something should be printed to standard error or standard output:
command >out.txt 2>error.txt
In the example above,
> will redirect standard output and
2> redirects standard error. Output can also be redirected using
1> but, since this is the default, the
1 is usually omitted and it's written simply as
So, to run
file.txt and save its output in
out.txt and any error messages in
error.txt you would run:
command < file.txt > out.txt 2> error.txt
out.txt exists, the output of
command will replace its content. If it does not exist it will be created.
out.txt exists, the output of
command will be appended to it, after whatever is already in it. If it does not exist it will be created.
>& : (per POSIX spec) when surrounded by digits (
- on the right side (
1>&-) either redirects only one file descriptor or closes it (
>& followed by a file descriptor number is a portable way to redirect a file descriptor, and
>&- is a portable way to close a file descriptor.
If the right side of this redirection is a file please read the next entry.
&>> : (read above also) Redirect both standard error and standard output, replacing or appending, respectively.
command &> out.txt
Both standard error and standard output of
command will be saved in
out.txt, overwriting its contents or creating it if it doesn't exist.
command &>> out.txt
As above, except that if
out.txt exists, the output and error of
command will be appended to it.
&> variant originates in
bash, while the
>& variant comes from csh (decades earlier). They both conflict with other POSIX shell operators and should not be used in portable
<< : A here document. It is often used to print multi-line strings.
command << WORD
command will take everything until it finds the next occurrence of
Text in the example above, as input . While
WORD is often
EoF or variations thereof, it can be any alphanumeric (and not only) string you like. When any part of
WORD is quoted or escaped, the text in the here document is treated literally and no expansions are performed (on variables for example). If it is unquoted, variables will be expanded. For more details, see the bash manual.
If you want to pipe the output of
command << WORD ... WORD directly into another command or commands, you have to put the pipe on the same line as
<< WORD, you can't put it after the terminating WORD or on the line following. For example:
command << WORD | command2 | command3...
<<< : Here strings, similar to here documents, but intended for a single line. These exist only in the Unix port or rc (where it originated), zsh, some implementations of ksh, yash and bash.
command <<< WORD
Whatever is given as
WORD is expanded and its value is passed as input to
command. This is often used to pass the content of variables as input to a command. For example:
$ sed 's/a/A/' <<< "$foo"
# as a short-cut for the standard:
$ printf '%s\n' "$foo" | sed 's/a/A/'
sed 's/a/A/' << EOF
A few other operators (
x<&y) can be used to close or duplicate file descriptors. For details on them, please see the relevant section of your shell's manual (here for instance for bash).
That only covers the most common operators of Bourne-like shells. Some shells have a few additional redirection operators of their own.
Ksh, bash and zsh also have constructs
=(…) (that latter one in
zsh only). These are not redirections, but process substitution.