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We are using several Ubuntu servers having English as working language; however having en_US locale set in machines we encounter problems with apt-cacher-ng downloading translation files. One solution is to change locale to POSIX. Considering all options we want to change locale in all the systems.

What are the consequences for the system of changing locales from en_US value to POSIX? Are there any implications on LC_* apart from change of the value?

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See What should I set my locale to and what are the implications of doing so? for a full overview of locale settings. In a nutshell, the one useful difference between C and en_US is the LC_CTYPE setting: C restricts applications to ASCII while en_US allows latin1. A good setting for a US English environment is to set LC_CTYPE=en_US.UTF-8, specifying the UTF-8 encoding of the Unicode character set which is the de facto standard character encoding nowadays; and leave other settings unset (which is equivalent to C (or POSIX which is synonymous)).

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