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I am going to set up a new Linux system on the SSD drive. Does the filesystem choice make a difference for them? Should I go with the default ext4, maybe try XFS, or does it just not matter?

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    If this is a normal desktop, just use ext4 with noatime as a mount option. The top answer to the dupe question has an interesting point about journalling, but I would not bother with this unless it's a busy fileserver or something. Your SSD will probably last quite a few years regardless. – goldilocks Jul 25 '14 at 20:42
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    The Arch Linux wiki has great info on this. Ext4 and XFS both have TRIM support, so they can treat SSDs well. (It's off by default in Ext4, but you can enable it with the discard mount flag.) – Anko Jul 25 '14 at 21:17
  • @Anko You ought to summarize and put an answer on question goldilocks linked to. – derobert Jul 25 '14 at 21:42
  • MY ANSWER IS HERE. This question ranks highest in searches but since it was marked as duplicate, I've just posted my answer in the 2011 question that had no up to date info. – rsp Dec 20 '14 at 5:59
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I found an article suggesting ext4 with following configuration in /etc/fstab:

/dev/sda   /   ext4   noatime,nodiratime,discard,errors=remount-ro 0 1

Here is my source for more information: apcmag.com Good question by the way, I'm planning on installing Linux on a SSD drive too, but didn't think of this before reading your question.