Is there any way for me to tell the maximum possible power of my wireless card from within Linux?
Or do I need to find the product number of the card, and search for specifications like that online?
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iw list will also tell you the allowed max power output by frequency. The number in brackets is the max power. I'm not aware of any other way of finding the absolute maximum of the device.
Frequencies: * 2412 MHz  (20.0 dBm) * 2417 MHz  (20.0 dBm) * 2422 MHz  (20.0 dBm) * 2427 MHz  (20.0 dBm) * 2432 MHz  (20.0 dBm) * 2437 MHz  (20.0 dBm) * 2442 MHz  (20.0 dBm) * 2447 MHz  (20.0 dBm) * 2452 MHz  (20.0 dBm) * 2457 MHz  (20.0 dBm) * 2462 MHz  (20.0 dBm) * 2467 MHz  (20.0 dBm) * 2472 MHz  (20.0 dBm) * 2484 MHz  (disabled)
It is related to which country you live and have a look at WIFI power by country
Some software allow you to go higher than maximum allowed power but that is illegal.