If there is at least one file in the current directory whose name begins with
wine* in the command expands to the list of files whose name begin with
wine. If there is no such file, then
sudo apt-get remove --purge wine*
is executed. Arguments to
apt-get install and
apt-get remove are extended regular expressions, not shell wildcards;
win followed by any number of
e, and since this can match any part of the package name, this means any package whose name contains
win as a substring. Plus, of course, any package that depends on these packages.
If you were using KDE, then you lost the
kde-window-manager package. If not, you must have lost some other critical package. Maybe
libmate-window-settings1 which is required by
mate-control-center which is required by
mate-desktop-environment-core whose loss would render most of the MATE packages superfluous. I checked Debian wheezy package names, Mint might have a different set, but you get the idea.
To remove just the packages whose names start with
sudo apt-get purge '^wine'
Check the list of packages carefully before confirming.
You may be more comfortable with Aptitude, which has a text mode full screen frontend.