What is the Fedora equivalent of the Debian build-essential package?
The closest equivalent would probably be to install the below packages:
sudo dnf install make automake gcc gcc-c++ kernel-devel
However, if you don't care about exact equivalence and are ok with pulling in a lot of packages you can install all the development tools and libraries with the below command.
sudo dnf groupinstall "Development Tools" "Development Libraries"
On Fedora version older than 32 you will need the following:
sudo dnf groupinstall @development-tools @development-libraries