What is the Fedora equivalent of the Debian build-essential package?
The closest equivalent would probably be to install the below packages:
sudo dnf install make automake gcc gcc-c++ kernel-devel
However, if you don't care about exact equivalence and are ok with pulling in a lot of packages you can install all the development tools and libraries with the below command.
sudo dnf groupinstall @development-tools @development-libraries
On Fedora 32+ you will need the following because
@development-libraries won't work anymore:
sudo dnf groupinstall "Development Tools" "Development Libraries"