What is the Fedora equivalent of the Debian build-essential package?
The closest equivalent would probably be to install the below packages:
su - yum install make automake gcc gcc-c++ kernel-devel
However, if you don't care about exact equivalence and are ok with pulling in a lot of packages you can install all the development tools and libraries with the below command.
su - yum groupinstall "Development Tools" "Development Libraries"
For Fedora 23 and above:
dnf install @development-tools
The command is yum-builddep. It is included in the yum-utils package.
sudo yum install yum-utils sudo yum-builddep $the_pkg_you_want_to_build