As your system has been compromised, no information you get from that system can be trusted. Only logs that are immediately shipped off to an external system can be trusted (such as real time remote syslog). Meaning if you've got some nightly log rotation to an NFS share, you cannot trust it.
However it is possible the user did not bother covering his/her tracks, and you might have the information still available on the system.
Unfortunately on a default Centos/RHEL install, there is very minimal logging. You're basically restricted to poking around in
/var/log. Which log you should dig through depends on what services are running on that box. However I would start with the ssh log. After that look at the logs of any services which run as root, or have
If you're lucky, that
test11 user might have a home directory, with a
.bash_history file containing a history of what was done.
Also, as the system has been compromised to the point where an unknown user was able to gain root access, the system must be rebuilt from scratch. You cannot reuse anything from the system. Consider every single file as compromised. I would also recommend against using backups as you don't know how long ago the system was compromised.
Once a user gains root access, there are an unlimited number of backdoors that could be installed. If I were the one who had gained access to your system, simply removing that
test11 user and changing the
root password wouldn't even slow me down.
In the future, there are a few things you can do.
As mentioned, only real-time remote logging can be trusted not to be tampered with. Make sure you have this.
There are 2 utilities you should install and use to monitor and audit the critical components of the system. These are auditd and ossec.
These 2 utilities operate differently, but are for the same goal, to watch for abnormal activity.
There is another auditing tool called
pam_tty_audit that works in conjunction with the earlier mentioned
pam_tty_audit is a utility you add to your pam stack which logs all input & output across the TTY. Meaning if the user is accessing the box via interactive ssh, their activity would be logged.
Note however that it is of the utmost importance that this log be protected at all costs. This is mostly because of passwords. When the you type your password at a prompt, even though you don't see the password being typed, the
pam_tty_audit module will see it, and log it. It is also possible you will
cat out (or otherwise view) files containing sensitive information, which will also be logged. Thus this log must be either be immediately shipped off the local system so that it cannot be obtained by intruders, or it must be encrypted (and the decryption key must not be on the local system). Preferably both should be performed, ship off remotely, and encrypt it.