In VirtualBox it does not work out-of-the-box because the default video driver does not support high resolutions. While the virtual graphics card which VirtualBox emulates for any guest operating system provides all the basic features, the custom video drivers that are installed with the Guest Additions provide you with extra high and non-standard video modes as well as accelerated video performance.
The module which loads the driver from VirtualBoxGuest additions is called vboxvideo. You can see information about it by running:
$ modinfo vboxvideo
license: GPL and additional rights
description: Oracle VM VirtualBox Graphics Card
author: Oracle Corporation
vermagic: 3.13.0-24-generic SMP mod_unload modversions
It won't work simply by copying any driver from the live cd because VirtualBox hardware is virtualized not real. The live CD detects you're real hardware and so it can load the proper drivers. If you want this to be done automatically when you run the live CD you need to remaster the iso image and insert the drivers.