I want to ensure that my program can only be run by user xyz using root privilege. To do this, I set the setuid bit with:

chmod u+s program1.sh
ls -l program1.sh
rwsr-x--- 1 root house 1299 May 15 23:54 program1.sh

Also, I added user xyz to the house group so that only xyz and root can run program1.sh.

In program1.sh there is

id -u

so that it can show me the effective ID.

Running program1.sh as root, it shows root. But running with the xyz account, it shows xyz. It seems that it didn't run with root privilege. I don't know what's wrong here.


1 Answer 1


When executing shell scripts that have the setuid bit (e.g., perms of rwsr-xr-x), the scripts run as the user that executes them, not as the user that owns them. This is contrary to how setuid is handled for binaries (e.g., /usr/bin/passwd), which run as the user that owns them, regardless of which user executes them.

Check this page: https://access.redhat.com/site/solutions/124693

This is a security measure taken by operating system. You should use your script with sudo instead.

If you really need to use setuid o your script you can create a binary that will do the work. Create a new file “program.c” and copy the following code:

   #include <stdio.h>
   #include <stdlib.h>
   #include <sys/types.h>
   #include <unistd.h>
   int main()
     system("./program.sh"); #This line is dangerous: It allows an attacker to execute arbitrary code on your machine (even by accident).
     return 0;

Compile and execute the code using the following commands:

$ gcc program.c -o program
$ sudo chown root.root program
$ sudo chmod 4755 program
$ ./program

This way it will work. The setuid works for compiled file, and this file can execute others files as root.

  • 1
    great information May 26, 2014 at 9:47
  • 1
    It's a beautiful thing! Dec 21, 2017 at 12:59
  • 5
    Please note, that this solution is dangerous, as long as the user can edit or replace ./program.sh. This would enable every user who can execute program to run arbitrary code as the user who owns program. From my point of view, a safer solution would be to port the code from ./program.sh directly into C code and add it to program.c.
    – tones
    Nov 6, 2018 at 12:17
  • 1
    Great hack indeed, which allows ANY USER to run ANY COMMAND as root </sarcasm-tag>
    – user313992
    Mar 21, 2020 at 18:43

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