What are the main advantages of using Debian instead of Ubuntu?
closed as primarily opinion-based by Kusalananda♦, Jesse_b, GAD3R, roaima, Jeff Schaller♦ May 10 '18 at 10:56
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Debian has some features that you could consider "advantages" depending on your needs and use cases.
- Stability. The Debian Stable branch has been tested extensively, generally for at least a year, as the Testing branch. The only updates Stable get are mission critical bug fixes and security fixes. This makes it an extremely stable platform (i.e., well-tested and little change).
- A tier-ed branch system for releases allowing you to pick the level of stability/up-to-dateness you need. Stable, Testing, and Unstable (plus backports, where select packages and libraries are ported from Testing to Stable). This provides a great deal of flexibility in how you decide to upgrade or stay with a certain version of a package or an entire release.
- The Debian Social Contract. A commitment to free software and the free software community. For the community, by the community.
- Debian is your way. You get a tremendous amount of choice and configuration options. There is no one "typical" Debian install. Debian is on your terms.
- Maturity - The Debian project has been around for a long time and is a stable part of the free and open source software ecosystem.
- Debian has been ported to many different hardware architectures. The current Stable release has 11 different ports. Ubuntu on the other hand is focused on the x86, and amd64 platforms.
- A LOT of packages. As in 29,000 worth. There's an old saying, if the project exists there's a .deb for it.
You'd have to further distinguish between Debian stable and testing/unstable, and between following all Ubuntu releases or only LTS releases.
- Debian stable and Ubuntu LTS release only every couple of years. Pro: you're not upgrading all the time. Con: the software and especially the drivers may get updated.
- Ubuntu has a few more things that work out of the box for inexperienced users, and a more polished recommended user interface. Debian is a little less beginner-friendly (fewer front-ends that hide the messy details) and a little more geek-friendly (fewer front-ends that hide the messy details).
- The core software (Ubuntu main) is more integrated. Once you go to universe, Debian is a little better because it's either more polished (stable) or more up-to-date (testing).
All in all, the difference isn't huge. I prefer to go with Debian stable on my machines, but recommend Ubuntu to others, and tend to use Ubuntu on newer hardware (especially laptops).
Advantages: More thorough testing, and structured release cycles. End-result, a more stable system.
stable archives are usually behind the latest version of software releases (including -dev libraries). This means you may need to manually install dependencies in order fill pre-reqs for that one-cool-program you really need the latest version of. Sometimes, you can work around this with debian-backports.
I like because (along with the advantages mentioned above) that, I can customize it better from the start.
Ubuntu installs a lot of application, even when you never will use those softwares.
But in Debian you can select from multiple software-collections, like "Web server", "FTP Server" or a full desktop. It's getting better if you use the netinstall image, this selection save a lot of bandwidth. And It's also better for old PCs with smaller performance.
And because It's just works!
I'm not sure why nobody ever mentions Debian Policy, which is the rocket fuel that makes Debian go. If you haven't read it, go and look at it. As far as I know, it is unique. No other operating system, free or proprietary, has anything like it. Among other things, Policy determines how Debian packages are made, how they fit together, and also help to determine bug classification. To quote Ch 1.1 of the Debian Policy Manual: Scope:
In the normative part of this manual, the words must, should and may, and the adjectives required, recommended and optional, are used to distinguish the significance of the various guidelines in this policy document. Packages that do not conform to the guidelines denoted by must (or required) will generally not be considered acceptable for the Debian distribution. Non-conformance with guidelines denoted by should (or recommended) will generally be considered a bug, but will not necessarily render a package unsuitable for distribution. Guidelines denoted by may (or optional) are truly optional and adherence is left to the maintainer's discretion.
These classifications are roughly equivalent to the bug severities serious (for must or required directive violations), minor, normal or important (for should or recommended directive violations) and wishlist (for optional items).
Unfortunately, Debian is these days showing an increasing and regrettable tendency to ignore RC bugs, even in the stable distribution.
I've used both for decades in production (Linux Servers) and I don't see anything that makes Debian better than Ubuntu. Ubuntu can be installed as minimal or full, it is made a little more "human" and it has the Ubuntu community which is "tighter".
I have tried to administer a Debian Desktop for family. Previously I have used Ubuntu. Ubuntu put a whole lot more work into the desktop/laptop experience. I consider Ubuntu so much more trust-worthy in this, and I plan to switch back[*].
I suppose this answer is not relevant to the actual question, except to suggest that the advantages of Debian must be in some reasons which are different from the following!
This was not noticed as it worked fine if you had upgraded to Debian 7/8 from a previous version. Even when it was noticed there was some problem, it was not handled well IMO.
- Ubuntu include apport which pops up to report program crashes to Ubuntu with a few clicks, improving the quality of Ubuntu. Debian Desktop has no program to capture crashes by default (maybe it will write coredump files though).
- Debian Stretch: gnome-software segfault in libgs_plugin_systemd-updates.so (PackageKit crash prevents updates in Debian 9, once Google Chrome is installed).
- Debian Desktop does not match Ubuntu's so-called "No open ports" default security policy.
- Ubuntu have patched CUPS to fix the default response on printing errors (e.g. no paper, no ink) to simply abort the job. I believe the default behaviour in upstream and in Debian is still to halt the print queue. In that default configuration, you must manually restart the print queue every time your printer runs out of paper or ink.
I was waiting for a solid Gnome 3 desktop in a Ubuntu LTS release first. I would have been willing to adapt to the Unity UI, but I was also put off by other aspects like it being a Ubuntu-only project.
Arguably the main reason I have this opinion of Debian, is that they wanted to publish a full Gnome 3 desktop, but they did not have the resources to integrate the Gnome changes without errors. Catastrophic errors, as shown above. There is no sign of increased quality assurance now; Debian has just had a little time to catch up. I had a similar (though less catastrophic) feeling during the KDE4 days.
It's possible there's an alternative older-style desktop that has not suffered such integration errors. But Debian does not have a position on this.