Is there any way in unix to find out who accessed certain file in last 1 week? It may be user or some script ftp it to some other place. Can I get a list of user name who accessed certain file? How can I find out who is accessing particular file??
Unless you have extremely unusual logging policies in place, who accessed what file is not logged (that would be a huge amount of information). You can find out who was logged in at what time in the system logs; the
last command gives you login history, and other logs such as
/var/log/auth.log will tell you how users authenticated and from where they logged in (which terminal, or which host if remotely).
The date at which a file was last read is called its access time, or atime for short. All unix filesystems can store it, but many systems don't record it, because it has a (usually small) performance penalty.
ls -ltu /path/to/file or
stat /path/to/file shows the file's access time.
If a user accessed the file and wasn't trying to hide his tracks, his shell history (e.g.
~/.bash_history) may have clues.
To find out what or who has a file open now, use
To log what happens to a file in the future, there are a few ways:
inotifywait -e access /path/towill print a line
/path/to/ ACCESS filewhen someone reads
file. This interface won't tell you who accessed the file; you can call
lsof /path/to/fileas soon as this line appears, but there's a race condition (the access may be over by the time lsof gets going).
LoggedFS is a stackable filesystem that provides a view of a filesystem tree, and can perform fancier logging of all accesses through that view. To configure it, see LoggedFS configuration file syntax.
You can use Linux's audit subsystem to log a large number of things, including filesystem accesses. Make sure the
auditddaemon is started, then configure what you want to log with
auditctl. Each logged operation is recorded in
/var/log/audit/audit.log(on typical distributions). To start watching a particular file:
auditctl -w /path/to/file
If you put a watch on a directory, the files in it and its subdirectories recursively are also watched.
The previous answer is not the best practice for doing what you ask.
Linux has an API for this. The
inotify API http://linux.die.net/man/7/inotify
- You can write a C program to do what you want just calling the
- You can use kfsmd, http://www.linux.com/archive/feature/124903 a daemon that uses
- If you want something that works across platforms (
inotifyis Linux specific) and you are using Java, JNotify works across platforms(Linux, Mac, Windows), abstracting the native OS' underlying API.