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I ran the following commands I found in a tutorial:

$sudo iptables -A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
$ sudo iptables -L

and got

target     prot opt source               destination


ACCEPT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere             ctstate RELATED,ESTABLISHED

The man page just says that -L "lists the rules in the chain." I understand the first 5 columns—but what about the last? What do these mean?

  • Do: iptables -t nat -L – PersianGulf Mar 14 '14 at 1:24
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The last column contains "options". Not every rule has any.

In this case it means the rule does not affect all packets but only those whose connection (keyword: connection tracking) is in one of the states RELATED and ESTABLISHED.

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