This seems to be an internal CPU problem. Triggering some checksum error in either 1 or more cores. My laptop (Samsung NP900X3C) does the same from time to time.
The reason Windows does not crash and linux does, might have to do with the fact that Windows automatically loads the latest microcode of Intel into the CPU at boot. Microcode is the "firmware" running within the CPU (yes that exists), and Intel from time to time patches this (bugfixes) and releases new microcode. This should actually be updated with a BIOS update by Samsung, but that is not likely going to happen......
Fortunately, it is possible to load the new Intel microcode into the CPU at boot time, which is what Windows does, but this only holds until the next reboot.
Even more fortunately, in Debian and Ubuntu this can be done as easily as:
sudo apt-get install intel-microcode
After this, linux will load the newest Intel microcode into the CPU at every boot. Please try it and see if your problems go away. I have done this myself at my laptop a few days ago and have not seen any crashes since.