On the back of How to repair a corrupted HFS+ partition from a damaged hard-disk?, I have separate question. I'd like to run smartctl tests on a hard disk, but I'm not sure which option I should use to correctly initialize the tests.

The drive in question is a Toshiba MK2555GSXF 250GB SATA/300 5400RPM 8MB 2.5" Hard Drive, and I connect it to the Linux box using an Icy Box IB-AC603A-U3 Adaptor SATA 6.4 cm / 2.5 Inches to USB 3.0 external disk case. Here's relevant output from lshw:

      physical id: 3
      bus info: usb@2:5
      logical name: scsi7
      capabilities: emulated scsi-host
      configuration: driver=usb-storage
         description: SCSI Disk
         product: 2105
         vendor: ASMT
         physical id: 0.0.0
         bus info: scsi@7:0.0.0
         logical name: /dev/sdb
         version: 0
         serial: 00000000000000000000
         size: 232GiB (250GB)
         capabilities: gpt-1.00 partitioned partitioned:gpt
         configuration: ansiversion=6 guid=6b43402b-9887-4a33-a329-9801b59ccdc7
            description: Windows FAT volume
            vendor: BSD  4.4
            physical id: 1
            bus info: scsi@7:0.0.0,1
            logical name: /dev/sdb1
            version: FAT32
            serial: 70d6-1701
            size: 199MiB
            capacity: 199MiB
            capabilities: boot fat initialized
            configuration: FATs=2 filesystem=fat label=EFI name=EFI System Partition
            description: Apple HFS partition
            vendor: Mac OS X (fsck)
            physical id: 2
            bus info: scsi@7:0.0.0,2
            logical name: /dev/sdb2
            version: 4
            serial: d9a741cc-8313-cc78-0000-000000800000
            size: 232GiB
            capabilities: journaled bootable osx hfsplus initialized
            configuration: boot=osx checked=2009-09-24 02:29:07 created=2009-09-23 17:29:07 filesystem=hfsplus lastmountedby=fsck modified=2013-11-03 01:02:00 name=Customer state=unclean

When I run a smartctl Self Test, it seems to fail:

root@liv-HP-Compaq-dc7900:/home/liv# smartctl -i -H -c '/dev/sdb'
smartctl 5.41 2011-06-09 r3365 [x86_64-linux-3.2.0-57-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-11 by Bruce Allen, http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net

/dev/sdb: Unknown USB bridge [0x174c:0x5136 (0x001)]
Smartctl: please specify device type with the -d option.

Use smartctl -h to get a usage summary

The trouble is that I'm not sure what to use for the -d option. I checked the man page, and the most sensible options seem ata or scsi. I understand that this particular drive is SATA, but for some reason lshw identifies it as SCSI. So I'm not sure what option is appropriate in this case?

UPDATE1: As suggested in the answers, I identified the device manufacturer:

root@liv-HP-Compaq-dc7900:/home/liv# lsusb -v
Bus 002 Device 007: ID 174c:5136 ASMedia Technology Inc. 
Device Descriptor:
  bLength                18
  bDescriptorType         1
  bcdUSB               2.10
  bDeviceClass            0 (Defined at Interface level)
  bDeviceSubClass         0 
  bDeviceProtocol         0 
  bMaxPacketSize0        64
  idVendor           0x174c ASMedia Technology Inc.
  idProduct          0x5136 
  bcdDevice            0.01
  iManufacturer           2 ASMedia
  iProduct                3 AS2105
  iSerial                 1 00000000000000000000
  bNumConfigurations      1
  Configuration Descriptor:
    bLength                 9
    bDescriptorType         2
    wTotalLength           32
    bNumInterfaces          1
    bConfigurationValue     1
    iConfiguration          0 
    bmAttributes         0xc0
      Self Powered
    MaxPower                0mA
    Interface Descriptor:
      bLength                 9
      bDescriptorType         4
      bInterfaceNumber        0
      bAlternateSetting       0
      bNumEndpoints           2
      bInterfaceClass         8 Mass Storage
      bInterfaceSubClass      6 SCSI
      bInterfaceProtocol     80 Bulk-Only
      iInterface              0 
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x81  EP 1 IN
        bmAttributes            2
          Transfer Type            Bulk
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0200  1x 512 bytes
        bInterval               0
      Endpoint Descriptor:
        bLength                 7
        bDescriptorType         5
        bEndpointAddress     0x02  EP 2 OUT
        bmAttributes            2
          Transfer Type            Bulk
          Synch Type               None
          Usage Type               Data
        wMaxPacketSize     0x0200  1x 512 bytes
        bInterval               0
Device Status:     0x0001
  Self Powered

Then checked whether the device (ASMedia AS2105 with ID 0x174c:0x5136) is listed in Smartmontools USB Device Support. There were a couple of very similar matches with successful outcomes, all suggesting the use of -d sat. And this seems to work in my case, too:

root@liv-HP-Compaq-dc7900:/home/liv# smartctl -d sat -i -H -c '/dev/sdb'
smartctl 5.41 2011-06-09 r3365 [x86_64-linux-3.2.0-57-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-11 by Bruce Allen, http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net

Device Model:     TOSHIBA MK2555GSXF
Serial Number:    10J9SA69S
LU WWN Device Id: 5 000039 245a067fd
Firmware Version: FH205B
User Capacity:    250,059,350,016 bytes [250 GB]
Sector Size:      512 bytes logical/physical
Device is:        Not in smartctl database [for details use: -P showall]
ATA Version is:   8
ATA Standard is:  Exact ATA specification draft version not indicated
Local Time is:    Fri Jan 17 16:18:03 2014 CET
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED

General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x00) Offline data collection activity
                    was never started.
                    Auto Offline Data Collection: Disabled.
Self-test execution status:      (   0) The previous self-test routine completed
                    without error or no self-test has ever 
                    been run.
Total time to complete Offline 
data collection:        (  120) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities:            (0x5b) SMART execute Offline immediate.
                    Auto Offline data collection on/off support.
                    Suspend Offline collection upon new
                    Offline surface scan supported.
                    Self-test supported.
                    No Conveyance Self-test supported.
                    Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003) Saves SMART data before entering
                    power-saving mode.
                    Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01) Error logging supported.
                    General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine 
recommended polling time:    (   2) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time:    (  90) minutes.
SCT capabilities:          (0x0039) SCT Status supported.
                    SCT Error Recovery Control supported.
                    SCT Feature Control supported.
                    SCT Data Table supported.

Now to make gsmartcontrol recognize the disk, I had to Device > Add Device, put /dev/sdb in Name and select sat,16 for Type. So this pretty much solves this particular question.