I'm thinking about to install Debian Wheezy or CentOs 6.5 (not the live version) on an USB drive. I think this shouldn't be a problem as long as my computer can boot from USB.
But will this work well with the bootloader?
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Though I've never done it with a non-Live OS, it should work, as long as the OS "does the right thing" and load the USB_Storage driver from an initrd before it needs to actually access the disk, it'll do fine. I'm using the grub bootloader on a 1TB USB drive and everything works fine. The way a flash drive and a removable USB hard drive represent themselves to the machine is essentially the same - a SCSI drive with X amount of storage.