I am familiar with accessing linux from windows, but how can I go about accessing files on a windows box from a linux terminal via ssh? I'd like to stay away from RDP and just grab files via the terminal.
You could install sshd on your windows box and then use scp. You could mount a windows share on the Linux box and then use cp ...
If you want to have an environment similar to Linux in windows, you can install cygwin on your windows box. Cygwin supports most of binaries that are available on Linux. You can start ssh service on cygwin and do ssh from Linux terminal. You can also set up keys which will allow pass wordless login.