I have MySQL installed on CentOS (detail versions given below). My OS is a VM machine and not a physical machine, the directory /data/mysql is a local disk (virtual). I suspect I might need to do some extra steps in a virtualized environment. This link has some information on SELinux & virtualization but not sure how to include it for MySQL.

MySQL works fine with the data directory in /var/lib/mysql but the moment I move it to another directory on different disk it stops working. Whereas different directory on the same disk works. If I disable SELinux, MySQL works with different disk. SELinux is restricting different drive. I tried the solution given in the following two links

In particular the following two commands:

$ semanage fcontext --add --type mysqld_db_t '/data/mysql(/.*)?'
$ restorecon -r /data/mysql

When I run:

$ ls -dZ /data/mysql

I get the following:

drwxr-xr-x. mysql mysql unconfined_u:object_r:mysqld_db_t:SystemLow 

Still I keep getting:

/usr/sbin/mysqld: Can't change dir to '/data/mysql/' (Errcode: 13 - Permission denied)

Is there anything else I need to do?

  • MySQL : mysql Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.6.14, for Linux (x86_64) using EditLine wrapper
  • OS : CentOS release 6.4 (Final)
  • /etc/selinux/targeted/contexts/files/file_contexts file doesn't have entry for path. I am pretty new to SELinux. Not sure what to edit there.
    – PAS
    Commented Nov 26, 2013 at 0:51
  • I checked /etc/selinux/targeted/contexts/files/file_contexts.local and there were several entries which were added during trying out different command. I removed everything using semanage fcontext -D and re-ran semanage fcontext --add --type mysqld_db_t '/data/mysql(/.*)?' and it worked.
    – PAS
    Commented Nov 26, 2013 at 16:19
  • I also needed to change the container of that folder to var_lib_t type. Not sure why this matters.
    – PAS
    Commented Nov 26, 2013 at 19:18

3 Answers 3


This problem can occur without SELinux and AppArmor on Debian 9 and other systemd-based distros, when the MySQL datadir is moved anywhere under /home.

The reason for this is the systemd service file (/lib/systemd/system/mariadb.service) contains the setting: ProtectHome=true . This setting will prevent MySQL from writing to any folder under /home and thus it will throw ErrNo 13: Permission Denied errors on startup.

The fix is to either move the data dir out of /home, or otherwise to turn off this security feature in the systemd service file:

1: sudo cp /lib/systemd/system/mariadb.service /etc/systemd/system/ # make a local override of the service file

2: Edit /etc/systemd/system/mariadb.service and change ProtectHome to be false (ProtectHome=false). Save the file

3: sudo systemd daemon-reload # refresh the systemd services so it sees your override file

4: sudo systemctl start mysql # and it should finally start

  • I've been searching for why my table-level DATA DIRECTORY specification wouldn't work. Turns out it only happens when using a directory in /home, which led me to this answer. Thank you!
    – rinogo
    Commented Oct 6, 2020 at 19:05
  • In the hopes it helps someone else out there, these are the specific error messages I was receiving: 2020-10-06 1:48:28 14 [ERROR] InnoDB: Operating system error number 13 in a file operation. 2020-10-06 1:48:28 14 [ERROR] InnoDB: The error means mysqld does not have the access rights to the directory.
    – rinogo
    Commented Oct 6, 2020 at 19:05

I don't see anything directly wrong with what you're doing in terms of the commands you're running or how you're approaching the addition of /data/mysql with respect to SELinux.

Just to make sure things are working properly I would check if present and/or manually add this line to /etc/selinux/targeted/contexts/files/file_contexts.local.

/data/mysql(/.*)?   system_u:object_r:mysqld_db_t:s0

When I repeated your steps above I had that line added to my file_contexts.local file as expected.

I would double check your steps you're following against the steps discussed here in this Redhat specific document titled: 10.4.1. MySQL Changing Database Location.

  • Thanks for the info about file_contexts.local. My file_contexts.local had lot of interfering entries. I cleaned all of them using semanage fcontext -D and readded semanage fcontext --add --type mysqld_db_t '/data/mysql(/.*)?'
    – PAS
    Commented Nov 26, 2013 at 16:21
  • @user2619299 - excellent, glad this resolved your problem. Thanks for the Q.
    – slm
    Commented Nov 26, 2013 at 16:26

This error is due to OS privilages issue. Please run following commands.

semanage fcontext -a -e /var/lib/mysql /opt/mysql
restorecon -R -v /opt/mysql

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