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Your headline question doesn't have a real answer; Unix time isn't a real timescale, and isn't "measured" anywhere. It's a representation of UTC, albeit a poor one because there are moments in UTC that it can't represent. Unix time insists on there being 86,400 seconds in every day, but UTC deviates from that due to leap seconds. As to your broader question,...


The adjustments to the clock are co-ordinated by the IERS. They schedule the insertion of a leap second into the time stream as required. From The NTP Timescale and Leap Seconds The International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) at the Paris Observatory uses astronomical observations provided by USNO and other observatories to determine the UT1 (navigator'...


The answer was simpler than I thought it would be. Credit to John B, one can use a sub-shell (...) for this: ➜ time (sleep $(sleep 3; echo 1)) ( sleep $(sleep 3; echo 1); ) 0.00s user 0.00s system 0% cpu 4.007 total

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