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These numbers disambiguate manual pages that have the same name. They represent the manual section that the page should be retrieved from. As an excerpt from Wikipedia states: The manual is generally split into eight numbered sections, organized as follows [...]


It's in kernel space. This article from Linux Device Drivers is a bit dated but still should generally apply: https://lwn.net/images/pdf/LDD3/ch18.pdf However, there is some effort recently towards replacing the kernel driver with a userspace console called "KMSCON" -- see that project's site for more: http://cgit.freedesktop.org/~dvdhrm/kmscon/tree/README


exec here could be a system call or a bash built-in or something else from this . And respective man pages related to system call or bash built-in refer to the exec's man page with numbers in the brackets. So if I want to refer to manpage of bash built-in, I would say exec(1) and if I want to refer to manpage of system call exec() i would say exec(2) The ...


The numbers are the sections in the manual. (1), for example, are commands.

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