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The files that are opened are not files on disk. They are the streams (pseudo files), stdin (0), stdout (1), and stderr (2). Here is the relevant excerpt from the POSIX standard: A file with associated buffering is called a stream and is declared to be a pointer to a defined type FILE. The fopen() function shall create certain descriptive data for a ...


1

Your proposal for capturing metadata on stdmeta appears to be simply so that you can discard it in favour of "real" data appearing on stdout in a consistent manner. (Not necessarily a bad requirement in a green field situation.) On a practical level, programs are coded to handle stdout and stderr. If you were to create a new stdmeta that took part of the ...


8

As written in the manual page, the /etc/networks file is to describe symbolic names for networks. With network, it is meant the network address with tailing .0 at the end. Only simple Class A, B or C networks are supported. In your example the google-dns entry is wrong. It's not a A,B or C network. It's an ip-address-hostname-relationship therefore it ...


3

The ip command never uses a host name for input either, so your example is hardly relevant. Also you've put a host name into /etc/networks, not a network name! Entries from /etc/networks are used by tools that try to convert numbers to names, e.g. the (deprecated) route command. Without a suitable entry it shows: # route Kernel IP routing table Destination ...



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