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So it's a permissions problem. The FAT filesystem mounted by root cannot be accessed by normal users. It's a result of the fact that FAT doesn't include ownership information, so all files are considered owned by the user who mounted it.[1] The chown error message is because you're trying to copy files owned by you, to the FAT filesystem, using the -a ...


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People underestimate the lifetime of modern flash as most (decent) flash cards will take hundreds of terabytes of data and still work. As indicated here on Ask Different (though not quite exactly your problem), it's going to be some time before you should start worrying about your SD card's lifespan. To quote an example, my SanDisk 32GB Extreme lasted for ...


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The bootloader is not involved at all, this task is usually performed by Linux kernel after it gets loaded into memory from SD card by bootloader which is located on SD card. The modern way of "booting" from memory requires you to write a custom initramfs script that will detect media where Linux is booted from (since bootloaders do not provide such a ...


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You could either look at a live distribution like GRML which supports copying its entire squashfs to RAM on boot (using the grml2ram argument) and which can be customized easily (see grml-live); or you could lay out your system as an initramfs and have the bootloader load that along with the kernel. Less elegantly, you could stick with a stock initramfs and ...


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The return status is in $?. $! holds the PID of the last background process.



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