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The reason is probably that / (containing /etc) is a read only filesystem, but has a symlink for /etc/shadow, /etc/passwd, and other dynamic files that lands on a read-write filesystem. This will allow you to edit the shadow and passwd files directly. The sed -i fails because its implementation doesn't actually update in place. Rather, it creates a ...


An easy solution in order to run a number of commands with sudo is the following: sudo bash -c 'command1;command2' For your situation this would work great: sudo bash -c 'ls -l >/directoryname/filename' This of course is only when you are using bash.


Log into the terminal (using Ctrl+Alt+F1) as root, edit the file /etc/pam.d/gdm-password and comment out the line auth required pam_succeed_if.so user != root quiet by putting a # character at the beginning of the line. Then reboot and you will be able to connect. This solution came from official kali linux forum ...


Have you tried just using su? Most of the time the default user on a livecd has passwordless sudo, and can also su passwordlessly to any other user.


Both programs are suid root. There is no reason to ever type "sudo su" except for the situation where one is unfamiliar with the "-i" and "-E" options to sudo, or otherwise in the habit of doing things as root without understanding why they're done. The su commands passes through a few hard-coded environment vars, while sudo can control exactly which ones ...


If you can use simply su, you should. But, in most modern (desktop-) Linux distributions (for example Ubuntu) the root user is disabled and has no password set. Therefore you cannot switch to the root user with su (you can try). You have to call sudo with root privileges: sudo su.

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