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8

Different modules behave differently when you provide the same option multiple times. I know you can say console= multiple times, and you get multiple consoles (we use it for machines with main consoles on both their framebuffers and serial port). However, you can only have one root partition, so root= almost certainly overwrites the previous value seen, ...


8

First of all the hassle with encrypted root and early userspace is typically already handled by your distribution (as far as i know Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu and OpenSUSE support encrypted root out of the box). That means you don't have to care for the setup itself. One reason for encrypting / is just to be sure you don't leak any information at all. Think ...


7

/etc, /var, and /tmp come to mind. All can potentially have sensitive contents. All can be given separate volumes, but it's common for each of these to be on the same filesystem as the root directory. Maybe you've moved one or more off into their own volumes, but have you moved them all? /etc contains: hashed passwords; possibly multiple sorts, such as ...


6

When the boot loader calls the kernel it passes it a parameter called root. So once the kernel finished initializing it will continue by mounting the given root partition to / and then calling /sbin/init (unless this has been overriden by other parameters). Then the init process starts the rest of the system by loading all services that are defined to be ...


5

You should be able to log in as root, because usually a percentage of the partition's size is reserved in order to always enable root login for rescue operations and such. See this U&L Q&A: Reserved space for root on a filesystem - why? What you won't be able to do, however, is log in as a regular user from your display manager then switch to root ...


5

It is given at boot time by your bootloader, for example Grub. To see with which arguments your kernel was started, do this: $ cat /proc/cmdline For me, this ouputs: BOOT_IMAGE=/vmlinuz-3.5.0-13-generic root=/dev/mapper/crypt-precise--root ro So the initrd/initramfs will try to mount my /dev/mapper/crypt-precise--root (encrypted LVM) logical volume as ...


4

Yes, it is a strong solution, but powerfull! Making r/o useable You have to mount some directories in rw, like /var, /etc and maybe /home. This could by done using aufs or unionfs. I like this another way, using /dev/shm and mount --bind: cp -a /var /dev/shm/ mount --bind /dev/shm/var /var You could before, move all directories who have not to change in ...


4

Linux provide many partitioning tools to re-size or shrink the partition that also without any data loss,It is possible to resize a partition using Gparted in a easy and a convenient way.As its a opensource and free download. To modify the partition with Gparted, it has to be downloaded then burned into a blank CD. This CD will be used as a bootable CD in ...


3

I usually make my root partition sizes for some of the distributions I run around 40 GB and haven't gone less than 20GB. It really depends on the operating system, display/window manager, and intended use. My intended use is Geographic Information Systems so this can involve installing several extra packages often exceeding several GBs (10+) in disk space ...


2

Check if you have kernels you aren't using. They can take up a lot of room, and Debian's automatic package management tends to leave old kernels behind. For example, if you're running kernel 2.6.32-5-686 (output of uname -r), you don't need linux-image-2.6.32-4-686 any more. For future reference, there's hardly any point nowadays in separating the /usr and ...


2

Ofcourse you should be worried but no need to panic since that you have seperate partitions for /var and /usr, that makes up for isolation of most often written and logged data which is good ; its important to have atleast some amount of free space (say 10% or 20% free space/reservation on all the filesystems) always around and you are not sure what ...


2

Make a backup before making any of the following changes Do not proceed without either a backup or the willingness to lose all data. run du -sh /home to get the size used by /home directory. If it's sufficiently large(>=4G), /home is a good candidate to have its own partition. Boot from either a livecd or SystemRescueCd Depending on your partition ...


2

You most likely moved the files at /*, which is essentially everything, given / is the top level directory and you move everything, *, under it. I guess my question would be where did you move it to? You might be able to move everything back if you can figure out where you moved it to. You'll have to call the mv command directly (ie. /accident/dir/mv) given ...


2

In case somebody has the same problem: All I needed was to move the mount point of the host file system to a place outside the root file system in the shutdown script (that's fine, because it runs in a tmpfs pivot root) before any unmounting takes place: mount --move /oldroot/run/initramfs/host /host This allows /oldroot to unmount cleanly. The host file ...


1

This is a bug somewhere in the kernel. It is not directly related to rootfs/initramfs changes. It may be due to some other change you made (did you use the same sources, the same configuration, the same compiler?), or it may be related to some timing issue that revealed a latent bug. This warning comes from handle_irq_event_percpu and the interrupt handler ...


1

You didn't mention which distribution created the rootfs. It seems, however, as though you just want to create a minimal rootfs. This guide will take you through building a minimal fs from scratch: http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Bootdisk-HOWTO/buildroot.html


1

The devices in /dev/bus/usb/XXX/YYY follow naming policies in the kernel as noted Gilles in the comments. XXX is the bus number which is quite stable, but YYY changes every time the USB device gets enumerated (when a device just got inserted or reset). This cannot be changed and you shouldn't have to change this either. If you need to change permissions on ...


1

Yes, see for instance how to boot a VM with the FS of the host: Add the 9p modules to the host initramfs (that's the easiest way albeit not the cleanest, to have an initrd with the needed modules): printf '%s\n' 9p 9pnet 9pnet_virtio | sudo tee -a /etc/initramfs-tools/modules sudo update-initramfs -u qemu -kernel "/boot/vmlinuz-$(uname -r)" \ -initrd ...


1

BusyBox's find supports the -xdev option, so you can make a cpio archive of the root filesystem that way. Unlike tar, cpio does not archive a directory's contents when it archives that directory. find . -xdev | cpio -H newc -o | { cd /mnt && cpio -m -i; } I don't quite understand why you're building the image from a device though. I'd expect to ...


1

It seems that using busybox-crippled tools for this is far more trouble than it's worth, because single-filesystem processing really is needed for this and it's missing from busybox cp. Possibly find could be used to copy files individually and avoid recursing into mountpoints, but that would involve a lot of individual processes and be very slow. ...


1

I'd think you'd be able to do what you want using cp. From the busybox.net website: cp Usage: cp [OPTION]... SOURCE DEST or: cp [OPTION]... SOURCE... DIRECTORY Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY. Options: -a Same as -dpR -d Preserve links -p Preserve file attributes if ...


1

That's not going to be easy. With classical partitions you need consecutive free space. You cannot add it up all over the disk. The fun gets even bigger by your extended partition beginning directly after the first one. There are two possibilities: extend the partition (in a narrower sense; limited to adding about 7GiB) create a bigger partition in the ...


1

I had the same problem. Finally, I was able to set richacls with a version of richacl-tools compiled from the commit 95baa060f677e54de11b00d08aacd563fd059270. It seems that the definition of the kernel richacl-fullset struct richace_xattr did not correspond with the definition in richacl-tools.


1

There is some linux trick to do this kind of work: mount --move which let you swap filesystem on mount point pivot_root which work with chroot for switch / root filesystem Initialy, the feature's goal was: booting kernel with an initramdisk as root filesystem (reserving some RAM for uncompressed initrd). All needed modules and scripts to access real ...


1

On most installations, you specify the root device to the bootloader. The root device is passed to the kernel as a parameter called root. Depending on the bootloader, this may be part of the kernel command line arguments (which may look like ro quiet root=/dev/sda1) or a separate setting. For some common bootloaders: Lilo: in the configuration file ...


1

Another reason is preventing tampering the filesystem. Once encrypted, it is much more complicated to do anything that could bite you on the next boot, e.g. placing a rootkit on your filesystem (be it by booting a live CD or moving the hdd to another machine temporarily). Your kernel (and initrd) are still vulnerable, but that can be alleviated by using ...


1

I have a notebook and a netbook running Archlinux. On notebook I have 17GB root, and don't have to think much before installing anything. Currently there are 3GB free. Once in a while I remove unused packages and clean package cache though. On netbook, I have a 4GB for /, and it cannot be resized. Usually less than a 1GB is free there. I pointed CacheDir of ...


1

Whether a 25GB system partition is huge or tiny depends on how much software you have installed (is this a single-purpose server or a shared workstation with a lot of domain-specific software?) and on how much data is lurking in /var (do you have 200 users' mail in that partition?). Good places to look for accumulated cruft include: /tmp: any old, large ...



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