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31

This is a limitation imposed by having a very old BIOS and bootloader rather than Linux itself. The BIOS would only be able to access the first 1024 cylinders of the disk (see here for more information on what cylinders/heads/sectors are). This limitation would extend to bootloaders which, due to their simple nature, would not have their own disk drivers and ...


19

Another reason beside the mentioned BIOS problem is that a separate /boot partition allows the use of a file system for the / volume which the boot loader does not understand (without being limited to block list loading like with lilo).


17

The history /boot contains files that aren't used by the operating system, but by its bootloader. You'll find both files of the bootloader itself (like /boot/grub/* for Grub) and the Linux kernel (/boot/vmlinuz*) and often an associated initrd or initramfs. On a PC with legacy BIOS (as opposed to the newer UEFI found on most recent computers), the software ...


16

That is almost certainly the extended partition that contains your logical ones. You should be able to confirm by running parted -l (or fdisk -l) as root. For example, on my system: $ sudo parted -l Model: ATA ST9500420AS (scsi) Disk /dev/sda: 500GB Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: msdos Number Start End Size Type ...


13

BOOTING IS HARD Booting... well... it really is the hardest part. Every time a computer boots it basically meets itself anew. It acquaints itself with its various parts, and for each one it meets it gains capability. But it has to pull itself up by its own bootstraps, so to speak, from square one every time. The trick is - when designing a boot process - ...


9

You can't convert, but can reformat the partition. Boot into Ubuntu or from a live CD and format the partition from there. Be careful not to format the wrong partition. mkfs.ext3 /dev/hdx1


8

Assume partition as just the rooms in the newly constructed house. It just doesn't have any layout or anything till now. All you have done is constructed new rooms in the house. Now, you need to have the rooms designed for specific purposes (for example, the kitchen has to have more storage shelves, the living room has to have more space to accommodate TV ...


7

Splitting files in /etc across partitions is a bad idea for this reason. What is happening is that the groupadd utility is creating a temporary file, and then replacing the real /etc/groups file (or rather, what the symlink points to) with the temporary one via a simple rename operation. The catch is that rename() only works on the same filesystem, ...


7

That partition is the extended partition that was created which then contains sda4, sda5, and sda6 which are logical partitions. In a MBR formatted HDD you can only have at most 4 physical partitions. So often if you want more you need to create an extended partition to contain any logical partitions. See this ArchLinux Wiki on partitioning for more ...


7

That there is a /boot directory is historically determined and from there "fixed" in the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard. Having such a standard allows programs (and sysadmins) to expect certain files at certain locations. In this case the files associated with the boot process. Having a /boot partition at the beginning of a disc made sense for older BIOS'es ...


7

Another approach is with findmnt: findmnt /dev/sda4 ...to get mountpoint from dev. Or vice-versa: findmnt /home


6

You will first need to reconstruct the partition table the way it was. This will not affect the contents of any partition, just the system's idea of where each partition begins and ends. It sounds like you might have already done this because you seem to have a partition that exists that is "unknown", but exactly the same size as the partition was before. ...


6

You can use: mount for a list of all mounted filesystems and mount options for each of them; lsblk for a tree of block devices, size and mount point (if mounted); df for a list of mounted block devices, size, used space, available space and mount point.


5

1. First you need some unallocated space to create the partitions for each mountpoint (/var, /home, /tmp). Use Gparted for this. 2. Then you need to create the filesystems for those partitions (can be done with Gparted too) or use: mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdaX for example to create a new ext4 filesystem on the /dev/sdaX device (replace /dev/sdaX with your own ...


5

If you can increase the capacity depends on whether you have LVM installed or not and whether your filesystem supports growing (ext{2,3,4}, btrfs, reiserfs, xfsm, and maybe some others, do) If you do have LVM you can add the new disc add it to the current /home (or if that is not a separate partition /) using vgextend and lvextend. If you don't have LVM, ...


5

Use parted instead, possibly coupled with your filesystem's resizing command. parted is the engine underneath the GParted GUI. You can use it in either interactive command mode or directly from the command line. Before parted 3.0, the following command does what you are probably expecting, having learned about GParted: $ sudo parted /dev/sdb resize 1 1 ...


5

From the Wikipedia entry: [The] maximum disk size supported on disks using 512-byte sectors (whether real or emulated) by the MBR partitioning scheme (without using non-standard methods) is limited to 2 TB. 2TB = 2*1024*1024*1024*1024 = 2^41 = 2^32 * 2^9, and 2^9 is 512.


5

To illustrate the question in a simple and efficient manner, consider two scenarios: You install your favourite linux distribution on entire disk i.e. without any partitions: Suppose your system is crashed because operating system is unable to access some sectors and unable to boot. You lost some chunk of data due to bad sectors and because of that you ...


4

I ran across the same issue just now, and found another workaround. Basically, it involves making the hosts /run directory available to the guest. First, we mount /run where it can be accessed by the guest. I will assume that your install partition is mounted at /mnt mkdir /mnt/hostrun mount --bind /run /mnt/hostrun Then, we chroot into the guest, and ...


4

Use parted to identify offset values. root@mysystem:~/# parted myimage.img GNU Parted 2.3 Using /root/myimage.img Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands. (parted) u Unit? [compact]? B (parted) print Model: (file) Disk /root/myimage.img: 8589934592B Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: msdos Number Start ...


4

Warning: with dd you can destroy data very easily, make sure you have backups and are familiar with dd before using it dd starts copying from the first byte of the disk you specify, including the master boot record, mbr. For example http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/howto-copy-mbr/ dd if=/dev/sda of=/tmp/mbr.bak bs=512 count=1 This will copy the first 512 ...


4

The partitioning of your system strictly depends on its purpose. I would partition even a small home server not in the same way as a desktop system as they not only differ in the purpose but also in the installed software. To me it seems the 15-25 GB proposal only applies to general Linux systems designed for daily use. For a desktop/laptop 25 GB ought to ...


4

If you want to use them all on the same partition you can either use LVM or three simple bind mounts. To create a bind based solution you create a partition with a filesystem go to rescue mode (single user still needs some of the folders) mount it as /mnt/data Move all folders you want to move. Using cp and mv dir dir.old might be safer, but since I did ...


4

Of course the primary goal is not to have the need to use swap in the first place... The main thing is to create the swap LVM volume when the system is still quite fresh, the same as when you create a swap file, as swap space performs best when it is contiguous. You don't want to actual disk blocks that make up the logical volume to be fragmented all over ...


4

It should be mkfs.vfat -I /dev/sdb. sdb1 indicates you probably have more than one partition, and you're just formatting the first one, which happens to be 64MiB.


4

I don't think the installer can do what you want yet (although it's getting better over time), so you could try booting the installation image, and run a root shell from the initial menu. You can then use gpart, zpool and zfs to configure your disks by hand and install the system from the archives on the image. There are numerous guides around the Internet, ...


4

No! /dev/sda contains: a small /dev/sda1 which is needed to boot. a extended partition /dev/sda2 The extended partition contains a logical partition /dev/sda5. The logical partition contains a LVM setup, broken down into to two logical volumes: /dev/mapper/server--vg-swap_1 which is your swap space /dev/mapper/server--vg-root which is your root (/) ...


4

You may want to try booting into a recovery disk. System Rescue CD MAY be able to recover the data. It is better to do this from a live disk because then you are less likely to overwrite the information that is there. When you delete a file it is not wiped, but instead the computer sees it as space that it can write over. As long as it has not been ...


4

I figured it out. My bootloader wasn't configured properly. Sounds obvious, right? Modifying fstab doesn't quite qualify as configuring the bootloader. I had to change a line in /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cgf to refer to correct boot partition. That said, there was no need to boot off of the second disk in the first place. I could have avoided this problem by ...


4

It can also be very orderly to have a separate /boot partition. On my machine, I have many distros and backups, each in their own partitions, but they all share the same /boot partition, which is where all kernels for all OS reside. Also, all distros point to my one and only copy of lilo.conf which is also in /boot, so I never have to guess what the heck is ...



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