Tag Info

Hot answers tagged

31

This is a limitation imposed by having a very old BIOS and bootloader rather than Linux itself. The BIOS would only be able to access the first 1024 cylinders of the disk (see here for more information on what cylinders/heads/sectors are). This limitation would extend to bootloaders which, due to their simple nature, would not have their own disk drivers and ...


19

Another reason beside the mentioned BIOS problem is that a separate /boot partition allows the use of a file system for the / volume which the boot loader does not understand (without being limited to block list loading like with lilo).


17

The history /boot contains files that aren't used by the operating system, but by its bootloader. You'll find both files of the bootloader itself (like /boot/grub/* for Grub) and the Linux kernel (/boot/vmlinuz*) and often an associated initrd or initramfs. On a PC with legacy BIOS (as opposed to the newer UEFI found on most recent computers), the software ...


13

BOOTING IS HARD Booting... well... it really is the hardest part. Every time a computer boots it basically meets itself anew. It acquaints itself with its various parts, and for each one it meets it gains capability. But it has to pull itself up by its own bootstraps, so to speak, from square one every time. The trick is - when designing a boot process - ...


9

You can't convert, but can reformat the partition. Boot into Ubuntu or from a live CD and format the partition from there. Be careful not to format the wrong partition. mkfs.ext3 /dev/hdx1


8

Assume partition as just the rooms in the newly constructed house. It just doesn't have any layout or anything till now. All you have done is constructed new rooms in the house. Now, you need to have the rooms designed for specific purposes (for example, the kitchen has to have more storage shelves, the living room has to have more space to accommodate TV ...


7

That there is a /boot directory is historically determined and from there "fixed" in the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard. Having such a standard allows programs (and sysadmins) to expect certain files at certain locations. In this case the files associated with the boot process. Having a /boot partition at the beginning of a disc made sense for older BIOS'es ...


7

Another approach is with findmnt: findmnt /dev/sda4 ...to get mountpoint from dev. Or vice-versa: findmnt /home


6

You will first need to reconstruct the partition table the way it was. This will not affect the contents of any partition, just the system's idea of where each partition begins and ends. It sounds like you might have already done this because you seem to have a partition that exists that is "unknown", but exactly the same size as the partition was before. ...


6

You can use: mount for a list of all mounted filesystems and mount options for each of them; lsblk for a tree of block devices, size and mount point (if mounted); df for a list of mounted block devices, size, used space, available space and mount point.


5

Of course the primary goal is not to have the need to use swap in the first place... The main thing is to create the swap LVM volume when the system is still quite fresh, the same as when you create a swap file, as swap space performs best when it is contiguous. You don't want to actual disk blocks that make up the logical volume to be fragmented all over ...


5

If you can increase the capacity depends on whether you have LVM installed or not and whether your filesystem supports growing (ext{2,3,4}, btrfs, reiserfs, xfsm, and maybe some others, do) If you do have LVM you can add the new disc add it to the current /home (or if that is not a separate partition /) using vgextend and lvextend. If you don't have LVM, ...


5

Use parted instead, possibly coupled with your filesystem's resizing command. parted is the engine underneath the GParted GUI. You can use it in either interactive command mode or directly from the command line. Before parted 3.0, the following command does what you are probably expecting, having learned about GParted: $ sudo parted /dev/sdb resize 1 1 ...


5

From the Wikipedia entry: [The] maximum disk size supported on disks using 512-byte sectors (whether real or emulated) by the MBR partitioning scheme (without using non-standard methods) is limited to 2 TB. 2TB = 2*1024*1024*1024*1024 = 2^41 = 2^32 * 2^9, and 2^9 is 512.


5

To illustrate the question in a simple and efficient manner, consider two scenarios: You install your favourite linux distribution on entire disk i.e. without any partitions: Suppose your system is crashed because operating system is unable to access some sectors and unable to boot. You lost some chunk of data due to bad sectors and because of that you ...


4

I ran across the same issue just now, and found another workaround. Basically, it involves making the hosts /run directory available to the guest. First, we mount /run where it can be accessed by the guest. I will assume that your install partition is mounted at /mnt mkdir /mnt/hostrun mount --bind /run /mnt/hostrun Then, we chroot into the guest, and ...


4

Use parted to identify offset values. root@mysystem:~/# parted myimage.img GNU Parted 2.3 Using /root/myimage.img Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands. (parted) u Unit? [compact]? B (parted) print Model: (file) Disk /root/myimage.img: 8589934592B Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B Partition Table: msdos Number Start ...


4

It should be mkfs.vfat -I /dev/sdb. sdb1 indicates you probably have more than one partition, and you're just formatting the first one, which happens to be 64MiB.


4

I don't think the installer can do what you want yet (although it's getting better over time), so you could try booting the installation image, and run a root shell from the initial menu. You can then use gpart, zpool and zfs to configure your disks by hand and install the system from the archives on the image. There are numerous guides around the Internet, ...


4

No! /dev/sda contains: a small /dev/sda1 which is needed to boot. a extended partition /dev/sda2 The extended partition contains a logical partition /dev/sda5. The logical partition contains a LVM setup, broken down into to two logical volumes: /dev/mapper/server--vg-swap_1 which is your swap space /dev/mapper/server--vg-root which is your root (/) ...


4

You may want to try booting into a recovery disk. System Rescue CD MAY be able to recover the data. It is better to do this from a live disk because then you are less likely to overwrite the information that is there. When you delete a file it is not wiped, but instead the computer sees it as space that it can write over. As long as it has not been ...


4

I figured it out. My bootloader wasn't configured properly. Sounds obvious, right? Modifying fstab doesn't quite qualify as configuring the bootloader. I had to change a line in /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cgf to refer to correct boot partition. That said, there was no need to boot off of the second disk in the first place. I could have avoided this problem by ...


4

It can also be very orderly to have a separate /boot partition. On my machine, I have many distros and backups, each in their own partitions, but they all share the same /boot partition, which is where all kernels for all OS reside. Also, all distros point to my one and only copy of lilo.conf which is also in /boot, so I never have to guess what the heck is ...


4

This wasn't a limitation of the Linux distribution, but was a limitation of older BIOSes. bAck in those days, to ensure Linux could boot, all the boot related files were placed in their own partition which was made the first partition on the hard drive to ensure the boot loader fell within the first 1024 cylinders. Create a partition that is smaller than ...


4

Although on modern systems, a file's sectors can be accessed anywhere on a disk, it still makes sense to confine boot materials to their own boot partition, simply from the principle of "do not put all the eggs in in one basket". Suppose that the main filesystem is corrupt in such a way that some lower-stage bootloader is not able to read the next stage ...


4

You're actually asking two questions. The easiest thing to do if you want to know where your home is: cd df -h . Or df -h $HOME Where is /tmp mounted? df -h /tmp ...etc. If you want to know what is mounted on a certain device, mount | grep ^/dev/sda1 (for example). Or mount | grep ^/dev/sd to see all the sd's.


4

The same tools that you can use for other files (generally) can also be used on block devices. This means that you can use, for example, xxd or hexdump to inspect the filesystem: $ sudo xxd /dev/sda2 | head -10 00000000: eb58 9053 5953 4c49 4e55 5800 0200 0000 .X.SYSLINUX..... 00000010: 0000 0000 0000 0000 3f00 ff00 0008 2000 ........?..... . 00000020: ...


4

This was asked recently but it was in the context of local disks. In that situation, there is a good reason to use a partition table on the disk even if you only intend to make it a single big partition spanning the entire disk: documenting the fact that the disk is actually in use, thus preventing accidents. I believe that the situation is different for ...


4

Both UUID of GPT partitions, and UUID of filesystems, are generated randomly when the partition/filesystem is created. You can check that they're version 4 UUIDs.


4

Linux itself mostly won't care. A few things won't be possible (e.g., installing a bootloader such as GRUB on the drive), but it sounds like that isn't an issue. Some software (udisks, for example) might fail to see it as a mountable filesystem, so it might work less well in desktop GUIs. If you attach this to a different OS, I'd expect both Mac OS and ...



Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible