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There are several reasons a piece of RAM would not be used by Linux: If Linux detects it as belonging to a hardware peripheral. Most computers need RAM for the display, and thus reserve some RAM for the graphics card. It's also possible for the graphics card to contain its own RAM; as graphics cards have relatively high memory requirements, they tend not ...


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Arch Linux' kernel has the swap accounting disabled by default (cf. the kernel config file). You can enable it by booting with swapaccount=1 in your kernel cmdline (cf. the kernels Kconfig documentation.


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The names actually match up, but sar and free don't show exactly the same fields. Your first ??? isn't kbcommit, it's shared memory, the same as Shmem from /proc/meminfo. The second row shows the memory usage if the memory used by buffers and cache was treated as free rather than used. $ free total used free shared buffers ...



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