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1

Here is the link for your binary blobs. Quote from the link: Binary firmware blobs from the Debian non-free archive are installed when no good Free Software alternative exists.


0

make install simply copies the kernel image to the /boot directory. make modules_install copies the modules to /lib/modules/kernel-version/. Most linux distributions these days boot using grub, so you need to run update-grub to notice the new kernel image in /boot, and add an entry to boot it to the grub configuration file so you get the option to boot ...


1

Is is hardly documented and largely depends on a platform. For x86, next available id is assigned to CPU in the function generic_processor_info() So, for x86, cpu ids are depending on order in which we would call that function. It is called when APIC (interrupt controller) is initialized, while APIC settings are taken from ACPI MADT table and the ACPI ...


1

I had to copy the modules from Qubes and regenerate the initramfs using the sudo dracut -f command.


0

No, it is not a strict subset. It is not even a subset. Here is a demonstration, on a desktop PC running a major GNU/Linux distribution without any customisations that should affect the result, that there is at least one datum present in sysfs that is not present in procfs: $ grep -ir `cat /sys/block/sda/device/model | cut -f1 -d' '` /sys 2>/dev/null ...


1

Sysfs is not at all a subset of procfs. They serve different purposes, see the answers to What is the difference between procfs and sysfs?.


0

Isn't /boot mounted readonly, by chance? If so, mount -o rw,remount /boot && yum update kernel && mount -o ro,remount /boot (note: I'm rarely seen at centos hosts being an ALT Linux developer so YMMV)


0

My requirement is very clear, I need to run my own Hello World C application on top of stand-alone kernel which will be sit into x86_64 machine. You can specify what program to run after kernel initialization with init kernel parameter (see bootparam(7).) For GRUB2, this will look like this: linux /boot/vmlinuz-4.5.2 root=whatever ...


1

[Self answer] While this is less than satisfying, we essentially went with @sjsam's advice and built a list of kernel versions by looking at the default kernel versions that ship with RedHat Enterprise Linux. Looking at versions of RHEL that are still in support today (April 2016), this gives us the list: 2.6.18 2.6.32 3.10.0 4.X (just for good measure, ...


1

The linux kernel source in Ubuntu is open source, so there is no problem with using (parts of) it, just like you can use any other linux kernel source. Using the Ubuntu name for your OS is not allowed unless you have permission from Canonical (who own the Ubuntu trademark), which in general is true for any other trademarks and their owners too. Of course ...


1

You've already installed the necessary packages (linux-headers-4.4.0-1-amd64 and its dependency, linux-headers-4.4.0-1-common), but the headers don't end up in /usr/include/linux, they end up in /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/source/include/linux. As Gilles points out, these headers are only intended to be used by the kernel; they're exposed via /lib/modules so ...


0

I solved my problem the ugly way. I'll wait with marking this as correct as I think there is a better solution. After trying a variety of solutions, among other trying to get information from /sys/ (readlink /sys/block/sda/device/driver etc). But I only found information that it was some kind of SCSI driver, which didn't help me. Finally I used my desktop ...


0

Maybe your disk is on LVM partition . check : /dev/mapper/lvm and also you can use df or lsblk command to find that path of your disk. mount command will also helps.


0

Simple: run a representative test while running old kernel and while running custom kernel and compare the results. The key here is "representative": different workloads will have different performance requirements and may work better or worse on different kernel settings. Your custom-compiled kernel may improve performance for some apps while hurting ...


1

If you need a newer kernel, elrepo might be helpful and save you the grief: http://elrepo.org/tiki/tiki-index.php http://elrepo.org/linux/kernel/el6/ Don't expect it to necessarily be flawless. I tried one of the newer kernels on a CentOS 5 machine recently, for some reason the NFS server would not start. I ended up digging-in and rebuilt that server in ...


2

Assuming you're running x86_64 (amd64) architecture, don't expect a huge difference in performance. This architecture gave things a new baseline for processor features (as compared to 32-bit code possibly going back to i386). Also, in the 32-bit world kernels and C libraries have already been compiled for different minimum architectures (i586, i686, ...). ...


2

Kees Cook implemented a sysctl to fill this need in early 2009. As documented in Documentation/sysctl/kernel.txt: modules_disabled: A toggle value indicating if modules are allowed to be loaded in an otherwise modular kernel. This toggle defaults to off (0), but can be set true (1). Once true, modules can be neither loaded nor unloaded, and ...


0

You answer most of your own questions above. Basically, we trust the integrity of the data retrieved from swap because the disk itself has checksums, CRCs, and such. In one of the comments above, you say: true, but it won't protect against bit flips outside of the disk itself Yes, but SATA uses 32-bit CRCs for commands and data. Thus, you have a 1 in ...


0

vmlinuz is the same. You will notice this if you ever run make install. The zImage or bzImage is what's installed to /boot/vmlinuz-$VERSION. It looks like some architectures wrap it as ELF (and some don't). Linux on x86 probably stuck without ELF for compatibility with the bootloader e.g. LILO, syslinux etc. And maybe they don't prefer how GRUB loads ...


0

This is unlikely to succeed in getting the device to work again, but might get the device responsive enough to respond to the remove. Whilst the device is ok, save all the pci configuraton registers, and after the power-cycle restore them. You can get some way towards this by finding the controller slot $ lspci | grep SATA 00:1f.2 SATA controller: Intel ...


1

Yes, it's perfectly safe. It's mentioned in the manpage for mount(). Since Linux 2.4 a single filesystem can be visible at multiple mount points, and multiple mounts can be stacked on the same mount point. I think mmp is something else. Something about mounting a block device which is shared between multiple computers. So it's not ...


1

You can also temporarily blacklist them on the grub command line (linux line) when you boot with the syntax module_to_blacklist.blacklist=yes OR modprobe.blacklist=module_to_blacklist You need to modify the grub,cfg to make the changes permanent. Mind you, this solution will not work for few modules


3

Have a look here to see what modules you have installed... ls -la /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/kernel/net/ipv4 You should get a list of modules, I got this. tcp_bic.ko tcp_diag.ko tcp_highspeed.ko tcp_htcp.ko tcp_hybla.ko tcp_illinois.ko tcp_lp.ko tcp_scalable.ko tcp_vegas.ko tcp_veno.ko tcp_westwood.ko You can see what your kernel has configured by ...


0

tcp_hybla and tcp_highspeed both are added to kernel tree as module. So, you can separately compile,install those modules and can use them. Hope you are already aware of how to compile a custom module.


7

On a standard UNIX system (based on the original sources *), uptime reads /var/adm/utmpx and checks for the last time of reboot entry. In other words: this is retrieving the date you also get with who -b and then computes the time since then. *) uptime is a link to the w program and was introduced by BSD around 1980.


72

On my system it gets the uptime from /proc/uptime: $ strace -eopen uptime open("/etc/ld.so.cache", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 open("/lib/libproc-3.2.8.so", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 open("/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 open("/proc/version", O_RDONLY) = 3 open("/sys/devices/system/cpu/online", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC) = 3 ...


10

As long as I know, uptime uses /proc/uptime to calculate system uptime. You can see it more clearly in the source code uptime.c FILE *fp; fp = fopen ("/proc/uptime", "r"); if (fp != NULL) { char buf[BUFSIZ]; char *b = fgets (buf, BUFSIZ, fp); if (b == buf) { char *end_ptr; double upsecs = c_strtod ...


2

If you're repeatedly building the kernel on the same machine, ccache can help a lot, especially if you're using a VM. In my experience, successive clean builds of the same project on a VM will build in about half the time as a build that didn't use ccache. You will need some extra disk space, to store the object files saved from the first build. Also the ...


5

The following instructions apply to building a kernel from upstream. Personally I find that simplest. I don't know how to obtain a tree with the ubuntu patches applied, ready to build like this. (1) Theoretically the way you build kernels in more reasonable timespans for testing is supposed to be cp /boot/config-`uname -r` .config you don't need to ...


0

Any kernel older than 3.18 will not compile using gcc 5. Use an older compiler.


0

You do not have the kernel sources. The compiler is looking for that header file. This link will get you a version of the kernel source tree that should be mostly similar to what you are looking for. https://cdn.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.6/longterm/v2.6.32/linux-2.6.32.71.tar.xz


0

Dell used to host the digest, and the LKML FAQ still links there, but it no longer seems to be available, and there doesn't seem to be any other digest. You'll find other ways of following LKML in the FAQ, including LWN's excellent coverage.


2

Actually here two things are there to care about: Is the running kernel version is same are of the source we are using. As previously compiled kernel may not be having all the dependencies which may be used in latest version, while compilation of external module with latest kernel source may be dependent on any part of the code, which is only present in ...


1

First, let me warn you that upgrading any OS in place has the potential to fail and then cause problems resulting from that failure. Having said that, Fedora 24 is still not yet released, so the latest official release of Fedora is Fedora 23. Instructions for that upgrade can be found at the Fedora Project Wiki. There are multiple methods for performing ...


0

OK, after much digging I think I have the answers: A1: Since 3.6 it's no longer possible to list the entire routing cache. You can see the routing cache for specific IPs using ip route get to A.B.C.D but can't list all of them. A2: ip route flush cache to A.B.C.D removes a single entry from the route cache. A3: Argh, could have known that: Because it ...


0

If the regular kernel boots and supports at least the hard disk controller, you can also place the required packages on a local server, using a tool such as reprepro or apt-ftparchive to create the correct Packages and Release files, and use the installer's expert mode to add the server as an additional package source. Because you are in expert mode, the ...


7

The Wheezy changelog lists all the package updates in each point release. This shows that Debian 7.7 was released with 3.2.63-2, while Debian 7.8 was released with version 3.2.65-1. So you won't find an installer image with the exact version you're looking for. But you can find the relevant kernel packages in the snapshots; this will allow you to install ...


1

I don't know if there are isos with that kernel, but why don't you try to compile the kernel that you need. Here's a guide on how to compile a kernel for debian.



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