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easier than fdisk for your purpose is lsblk: $ lsblk --nodeps NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT sda 8:0 0 223.6G 0 disk sdb 8:16 0 298.1G 0 disk sr0 11:0 1 12M 0 rom or if you just want the drives: $ lsblk --nodeps -n -o name sda sdb sr0


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I'm assuming you are using a Debian/Ubuntu based system as they do not automatically remove older kernels, whereas Fedora and family do. List all your installed kernels with: dpkg -l | grep linux-image You'll get a list of all packages. Decide which ones you want to keep and remove the others: sudo apt-get autoremove linux-image-a.b.c linux-image-x.y.z ...


3

I think you can get away with using split's --filter=COMMAND. ... | split -b <SIZE> -d - part --filter=./split-filter where ./split-filter is something like #!/bin/bash set -e n="${FILE#part}" case $((10#$n%3)) in 0) dd bs=64K >"path1/$FILE" ;; 1) dd bs=64K >"path2/$FILE" ;; 2) dd bs=64K ...


1

Most of the modern Window Manager include an option in the File Manager (nautilus, caja, etc) to automatically mount the external hard drives. In my example (Linux Mint with MATE) going to the System Preferences, File Manager, there is a section called "Removable Drives and Media" where you can enable / disable automatic mounting of external devices. Also, ...


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There are filesystems for which a read-only mount triggers a write operation. The one case I'm aware of is journaling filesystems, where if you mount a filesystem that wasn't unmounted cleanly, that triggers a replay of the journal, even for a read-only mount. With ext3 or ext4 on Linux, pass the noload mount option: mount -o ro,noload /dev/gcw/root ...


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You could also try: sudo pvscan This will show you if any of the disks are in use by the logical volume manager. You can also use fdisk to determine which device corresponds to each physical drive: sudo fdisk -l /dev/sda sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdb sudo fdisk -l /dev/sbc sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdd


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lsblk will show you the mountpoint of your disks.


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Try this: blkid | awk -F":" '{print $1}'



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