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96

GNU will not adopt something as a project unless the developers agree to certain stipulations which bind all official GNU projects. Currently the linux kernel probably does not fit these restrictions, and there is nothing for Linus T., kernel.org, et al. to gain from placing themselves under the GNU umbrella, and a lot to lose -- the aforementioned binding ...


60

It appears that you are confusing two very different parts of the OS. It's understandable, because they are often referred to interchangably, but it's technically incorrect, so your question is based on a faulty premise. In order to fully explore and hopefully answer the question that you likely want to ask, a short history lesson is needed. First, there ...


59

There is much documentation and discussion on this on the net. The short answer that there are deep ideological differences between the GNU project and the Linux kernel projects, which gets in the way of a possible unification. The focus of the FSF, the organization behind the GNU project, is on ideological purity with respect to the idea of free software. ...


33

The [ binary residing under the /bin tree in many GNU/Linux distributions is not something to be alarmed off. At least in my Fedora 19 it is a part of the coreutils package, as demonstrated below: $ rpm -qf /bin/[ coreutils-8.21-13.fc19.x86_64 and is a synonym for test to allow for expressions like [ expression ] to be written in shell scripts or even ...


27

GNU Info was designed to offer documentation that was comprehensive, hyperlinked, and possible to output to multiple formats. Man pages were available, and they were great at providing printed output. However, they were designed such that each man page had a reasonably small set of content. A man page might have the discussion on a single C function such ...


21

The reason the Info system was invented is necessity, but I guess "laziness, hubris and impatience" is an equally good explanation. The point of the GNU project was to develop a freely modifiable and freely distributible operating system and tools. The traditional Unix man system was based on the nroff/troff document formatting system from Bell Labs, which ...


16

I am quoting a comment by Richard Stallman, regarding the decision to roll with the Hurd rather than Linux. People sometimes ask, ``Why did the FSF develop a new free kernel instead of using Linux?'' It's a reasonable question. The answer, briefly, is that that is not the question we faced. When we started developing the Hurd in 1990, the ...


13

As the Wikipedia page says, TeXinfo was designed as the official documentation of the GNU project by Richard Stallman. It is a set of macros on top of TeX, and was designed for writing software manuals. I think Stallman considered man pages inadequate for the task. Two advantages Texinfo has over man pages is that it is hypertexted, and second, that it is, ...


12

The font is Donald Knuth's Computer Modern. The documentation was no doubt created with LaTeX (or maybe even plain TeX). (Actually, these are both confirmed by the PDF metadata.) (Edit: Poking around a bit more, it looks like, strictly speaking the documentation is created in a base format, which, thanks to GNU texinfo is exported to a variety of formats, ...


12

FreeBSD 10 will use the BSD-licensed Clang compiler instead of GCC for 32- and 64-bit Intel x86 systems. The only thing preventing a wholesale switch on all CPU platforms FreeBSD releases on is developer time and interest. As for FreeBSD 9 — which was just about to be released when this question was first posed — there was talk about making ...


12

The term "userland" can refer to many things in different contexts, but here I interpret "GNU userland" vs "BSD userland" as the default, minimum set of programs that come with a distribution. The big main difference is that the two userlands start with completely different source code. GNU cat source code NetBSD cat source code. Just from that ...


12

The Ubuntu bsdtar is actually the tar implementation bundled with libarchive; and that should be differentiated from classical bsdtar. Some BSD variants do use libarchive for their tar implementation, eg FreeBSD. GNUtar does support the other tar variants and automatic compression detection. As visualication pasted the blurb from Ubuntu, there are a few ...


12

for stuff in things do ( something with stuff ) & done wait # for all the something with stuff Whether it actually works depends on your commands; I'm not familiar with them. The rm *.mat looks a bit prone to conflicts if it runs in parallel...


9

After some hardcore bash code examining I found out that bash time uses getrusage() and GNU time uses times(). getrusage() is far more precise because of microsecond resolution.


9

stat: print timestamps to full resolution was committed to coreutils-8.6. $ git clone git://git.savannah.gnu.org/coreutils.git $ cd coreutils $ git log -1 --grep=time -- src/stat.c commit 9069af45e691d1252c727da66aa4f3f3c7f1ea29 Author: Eric Blake Date: Thu Sep 30 16:42:13 2010 -0600 stat: print timestamps to full resolution * src/stat.c ...


9

Strictly speaking, the POSIX specification for sed requires a newline after a\: [1addr]a\ text Write text to standard output as described previously. This makes writing one-liners a bit of a pain, which is probably the reason for the following GNU extension to the a, i, and c commands: As a GNU extension, if between the a and the newline there ...


9

From the Ubuntu package description (http://packages.ubuntu.com/de/lucid/bsdtar) "The bsdtar program has a number of advantages over previous tar implementations: Library. Since the core functionality is in a library, it can be used by other tools, such as pkg_add. Automatic format detection. Libarchive automatically detects the compression ...


9

That is a difficult question to answer. Fist "Unix Like" or "*nix" usually means POSIX. All the systems you listed are POSIX systems. POSIX is a set of standards to implement. Now for the harder questions. GNU isn't really a OS. It's more of a set of rules or philosophies that govern free software, that at the same time gave birth to a bunch of tools ...


8

The same reason rm, cp and a whole slew of other utilities don't -- from early on, the POSIX design concept has always been to assume that the person at the console knows what they're doing and not to ask for clarification unless there's an actual problem. In the case of tar, a look at the manual page suggests you could try setting the TAR_OPTIONS env ...


8

I believe this is a bug which has been fixed, in July 2011, but probably hasn't made it to your version of tar yet. v.1.26 is the current version, and was released 19 months ago (i.e. March 2011), but there will be some delay between the upstream patch and Ubuntu pushing out the fix. It looks like upstream haven't released this as a bug fix yet, since the ...


8

I would be inclined to think that dir is there just for backwards compatibility. From GNU Coreutils: dir is equivalent to ls -C -b; that is, by default files are listed in columns, sorted vertically, and special characters are represented by backslash escape sequences. By the way, ls doesn't colorize the output by default: this is because most distros ...


8

The grep man page explains both symbols: Anchoring The caret ^ and the dollar sign $ are meta-characters that respectively match the empty string at the beginning and end of a line. Searching for ^ just matches the beginning of the line, which every line has, so they all match. Searching for an empty string has no constraints at all, so it also ...


8

The explicit goal of the GNU project is to provide a complete open source/libre/free operating system. Are there any GNU distributions which use only these packages -- i.e. a "pure" GNU operating system that runs on only GNU packages? There is a reference here to an official sounding GNU binary distro based on Hurd which "consists of GNU Mach, the ...


8

Why don't you just fork (aka. background) them? foo () { local run=$1 fsl5.0-flirt -in $kar"deformed.nii.gz" -ref normtemp.nii.gz -omat $run".norm1.mat" -bins 256 -cost corratio -searchrx -90 90 -searchry -90 90 -searchrz -90 90 -dof 12 fsl5.0-flirt -in $run".poststats.nii.gz" -ref $kar"deformed.nii.gz" -omat $run".norm2.mat" -bins 256 -cost ...


8

As far as I can tell, the use of -- as end-of-options-marker starts with sh and getopt in System III Unix (1980). According to this history of the Bourne Shell family, the Bourne Shell first appeared in Version 7 Unix (1979). But it didn't have a way for set to separate options from arguments. So the original Bourne shell could do: set -e - turn on ...


8

To answer your question with at least a hint of factual background I propose to start by looking at the timeline of creation of man, info and other documentation systems. The first man page was written in 1971 using troff (nroff was not around yet) in a time when working on a CRT based terminal was not common and printing of manual pages the norm. The man ...


7

You can use the Glibc manual as a reference. It's not for absolute beginners, but if you're reasonably fluent in C you should be able to read a section and write a working program. You can find the source of the GNU tools on the GNU website; the easiest way to get it is to obtain the source packages on your Linux distribution (e.g. apt-get source coreutils ...


7

At this point in time, considering there is no "stable" distribution of GNU/Hurd, the major advantages seem to lie with Linux. A good place to start understanding the differences between a Mach microkernel, and a traditional monolithic unix kernel is the Wikipedia page on Mach (Kernel). As an interesting note, Mac OS X, uses a Mach Kernel, called XNU. ...


7

It's likely out of necessity. Until recently, the BSD-licensed C compilers were probably few or didn't come close to feature parity with gcc. From FreeBSD Project Goals: That code in our source tree which falls under the GNU General Public License (GPL) or Library General Public License (LGPL) comes with slightly more strings attached, though at ...


7

tar -k option asks for a confirmation if the file already exists. You could set it by default either by adding it to the TAR_OPTIONS variable (TAR_OPTIONS="$TAR_OPTIONS -k") or creating an alias (alias tar="tar -k").



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