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24

I'll answer your questions out of order: the release team chooses code names; the next two releases are Stretch and Buster; and I don't think we're worried about running out of names yet... As pointed out by eyoung100, Strech is the octopus in Toy Story 3, and Buster is Andy's dog. Also, Sid is the name of the next-door kid who breaks all his toys. "Still ...


21

If the lines in your sources.list say "wheezy", you will stay with Wheezy even when Jessie is released. If you change those lines to say "stable" instead, apt will upgrade you to Jessie when it's released, because "stable" will become an alias for "jessie" instead of "wheezy". (And if you change those lines to say "jessie", you'll upgrade to Jessie now, ...


18

Answer to my question, from Qualys: During our testing, we developed a proof-of-concept in which we send a specially created e-mail to a mail server and can get a remote shell to the Linux machine. This bypasses all existing protections (like ASLR, PIE and NX) on both 32-bit and 64-bit systems. My compiled research below for anyone else ...


14

You already have a good answer for most of it. But for intrest I thought I would play into the math of running out of names: It has been 19 years since the first codenamed release (Buzz 1996). so far 13 character names are used. Toy Story has 40ish potential names, assuming no more movie. If we assume that names continue being used at the same rate. I ...


14

Unix was originally a product, first developed in AT&T's Bell Labs. But today, the word “Unix”, except in historical context, means a family of operating systems, not a single product (similarly to “Linux” meaning a family of distributions, not a single product). This family has a somewhat complex history (see also Evolution of Operating systems from ...


13

Debian is probably one of the easiest to upgrade - even across major releases. From the Debian FAQ, Chapter 9, Keeping your Debian system up-to-date there is this statement, A Debian goal is to provide a consistent upgrade path and a secure upgrade process. We always do our best to make upgrading to new releases a smooth procedure. Opinion: I have ...


10

No, the upgrade won't be automatic, you have to manually replace every instance of wheezy by jessie in your /etc/apt/sources.list. Alternatively, you could replace them with stable and then, the upgrade will be automatic once Jessie is released. Note that I wouldn't recommend the latter if you use unattended-upgrades, because your system may end up being a ...


7

At the moment elementary isn't providing an upgrade path from update manager since results are mixed. Sometimes it works, sometimes it doesn't. You can try: Back up EVERYTHING. Make a Freya install disk. Boot from the install disk and select the "upgrade" option. However, as I said, results may vary. It's always recommended to perform a clean install. An ...


6

You can view if a file called /etc/debian_version exists. $ cat /etc/debian_version wheezy/sid If it exists, you also can see the version of debian. Also distributions like Ubuntu, Linux Mint, and so on, which are based on Debian have that file. Actually most distributions have a release file you can also try and see what comes out: cat /etc/*release


6

Ah, the famous conundrum "which Linux distro to install". The best thing would be to install the same distro the friends of your friend use, so he can get help when he needs. If he knows nobody using Linux around him, the simplest and user-friendlier distro is probably Ubuntu. It has a large user base and good support.


6

(I'll refer to original authors or original software as upstream authors and upstream software because that's what I'm used to calling them.) From the end-user's perspective, it's nice to have a single place to report bugs, rather than having to sign up for accounts in various upstream bugtrackers for all the software they use. From an upstream author's ...


6

There is no original GNU/Linux operating system. Linux is the kernel and GNU is the operating system. A Linux distribution is created when users combine the Linux kernel with the essential tools that run an operating system. Some History in a Nutshell GNU set out to make a free UNIX-like operating system in 1983. By the early 1990's, GNU had all of the ...


5

Debian and derivatives (Ubuntu, Linux Mint, …) The configuration for the kernel /boot/vmlinuz-VERSION is stored in /boot/config-VERSION. The two files ship in the same package, linux-VERSION or kernel-VERSION. Arch Linux, Gentoo (if enabled) The configuration for the running kernel is stored in the kernel binary and can be retrieved with zcat ...


5

docker Ubuntu 15.04: $ lsb_release -rd Description: Ubuntu 15.04 Release: 15.04 $ apt-cache show docker Package: docker ... Description-en: System tray for KDE3/GNOME2 docklet applications Docker is a docking application (WindowMaker dock app) which acts as a system tray for any desktop environment, allowing you to have a system tray without ...


4

I would recommend going with a rolling distribution. Meaning that there are no upgrades to higher version, you always have the newest version. Arch Linux is the one of the most popular rolling distros. Obviously Arch is not the way to go if you insist on it being easy to use, as it requires considerably more effort to setup up the system. However Antergos ...


4

Counting from Toy Story to Toy Story 4 (planned to be release 2017), there are less than 8 years between movies, on average. Using @Oxinabox's estimate of less than a release per year, that would require less than 8 new characters per movie (in fact, 22 years/3 movies*0.68 debian releases/year=about 5 new characters per movie), to keep going forever. I ...


4

You might also be interested in looking at what is called 'Free GNU/Linux distributions', the distributions that are endorsed by GNU community and that completely follow the GNU Public License. http://www.gnu.org/distros/free-distros.html


4

I think you can do it with these steps (these are the first and second part of the step-by-step guide) .... Preparing the host sudo apt-get install squashfs-tools sudo apt-get install chroot setting up our working environment. First, we are going to mount the iso under /tmp/livecd: mkdir /tmp/livecd sudo mount -o loop ...


3

Well, actually Mint Petra uses Ubuntu repositories for stuff and only installs some extras. Removing these packages will most surely bork your system. The official default Mint sources.list includes those repositories. You can disable them but again, you should strive to have your system upgraded with all the latest packages. See instructions below: To ...


3

Almost all PC-targeting distros are going to have a way to install GCC, as you can't compile the Linux kernel without it. But it won't always be installed by default, and even if it is, can be removed by the admin. Example: I don't think it's installed by default on Debian. (Though the installer gives you a wide selection of which packages to install, so ...


3

I can't answer why PBI wasn't successful, but I can answer why shared libraries are preferred in Linux. The major argument is security, that if there is a vulnerability in a commonly-used library, then only that library has to be updated, and not all of the applications that use that library (thanks to ABI compatibility). This also means that (if you stick ...


3

bash/dash are not predominant because of any special interaction with the kernel. The reason for their predominance over other options (e.g. csh variants such as tcsh, or other things like zsh) is just that both are sh-compatible, and the vast majority of shell scripts are written for that target. There's nothing that requires either bash or dash ...


3

An Ubuntu-base distro for Beowulf clusters developed by the University of the Basque Country in Spain: http://www.ehu.eus/AC/ABC.htm ABC GNU / Linux distribution is based on Ubuntu and specializes in the automatic construction of high-performance Beowulf clusters with only boot in "live " mode in frontend or being installed on your hard drive. ...


2

The answer to your first question is no, and you can read proof for that from your own post: The kernel ...is ...for Ubuntu 3.2+ for 12.04. Mark the + after 3.2. On my server it is 3.11, not 3.2, so it is not fixed. The version number of the Linux kernel is the defining factor for the kernel. A Linux distribution is defined by many more different things. ...


2

All Linux distributions fundamentally run the same software. What distinguishes distributions is mainly the installer, the software installation mechanisms, and that some system components may be recommended or mandatory on a particular distribution (init system, network management, etc.) as well as the selection of packaged software. For the most part, ...


2

For Debian: Most Debian package sources include a debian/watch file. There is a service (currently not working) which scans these files regularly and informs the corresponding package maintainers if there are new upstream versions.


2

Well, all Gentoo releases are 2.2. Since Gentoo is not a distribution that has releases (i.e. in stepped increments), you won't find that around. Gentoo is a rolling release, which means all packages are continuously updated, there's no global system version like Ubuntu or Fedora. In short /etc/gentoo_release is irrelevant of the system «version». What you ...


2

Linux is the kernel. This connects you to the hardware of your system. GNU (GNU is Not Unix). Here are the essential libre tools you're interested in. After combining the two parts one gets a "distribution" or "flavor" of Linux, aka GNU/Linux to some. Perhaps one approximation of what you seek is the GNU/Hurd. https://www.gnu.org/software/hurd/hurd.html ...


2

So I'm not sure if you're looking to do this programmatically or not. But the first step you'd need to accomplish this is a database that catalogues all of this sort of information for each distribution and their respective releases. Luckily… that is exactly what distrowatch.com is. You can gather this information using their advanced search page, which ...


2

With debian (and derivatives like ubuntu, mint, etc) you can save the current set of selected packages with: dpkg --get-selections '*' > /tmp/selections.txt Copy that file to a USB stick or somwehere convenient, so you can use it with dpkg --set-selections after you have re-formatted and installed the base OS. Login as root (or sudo -i to get a root ...



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